Question 1. How Many Airports Does Aai Manage?
As per information to be had on AAI’s internet site: AAI manages a hundred twenty five airports, which consist of 18 International Airport, 07 Customs Airports, 78 Domestic Airports and 26 Civil Enclaves at Defense airfields.
Question 2. When Was Aai Formed?
Airports Authority of India (AAI) become constituted by using an Act of Parliament and came into being on 1st April 1995 by merging erstwhile National Airports Authority and International Airports Authority of India.
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Question three. Who Is Board Member (air Navigation Services) Of Aai?
Currently, Mr. Anil Kumar Dutta is Member (Air Navigation Services), AAI.
Question 4. What Is Icao?
International Civil Aviation Organization became established in 1944. The ICAO works intently with its member states (read as countries) and different civil aviation groups to finalize the Standards and Recommended Practices (that are known as SARPs) to bring the uniformity in guidelines and operations accompanied via man or woman nations.
Question 5. Who Is The Regulatory Agency For Indian Civil Aviation?
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the regulatory frame for civil aviation. Ms. M. Sathiyavathy is contemporary Director General of Civil Aviation.
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Question 6. What Is Green Field Airport?
An airport this is built from scratch on a brand new web page which is undeveloped is called Green Field Airport. So building a Green Field Airport has no constraints due previous paintings/present infrastructure and so on.Example: Rajiv Gandhi Intl. Airport, Hyderabad. Durgapur (West Bengal) has India’s first private Green Field Airport.
Question 7. What Is Brown Field Airport?
The time period Brown Field is associated with upgrading or enhancing the already present infrastructure, hence those airports that are redeveloped/upgraded/changed are known as Brown Field Airports. Example: IGI Airport, New Delhi.
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Question 8. What Do You Know About Mh17?
Flight MH17 was a Malaysian Airlines flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur. The flight become journeying over the conflict-hit place on 17 July 2014 when it disappeared from RADAR. The flight crashed after being hit via a missile over Eastern Ukraine. A total of 283 passengers were killed in this accident.
Question nine. What Do You Know About Mh370?
MH370 become a Malaysian Airlines flight which changed into en course from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing on eight March 2014 when air traffic manage unit misplaced contact with it. Despite an extensive seek of the southern Indian Ocean, no hint of the aircraft were located until the discovery of the aircraft’s component on Reunion Island in July’15 which become confirmed to be part of MH370 Flight.Investigators are persevering with to look for the relaxation of the plane.
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Question 10. Name The Two Indian Airports That Are To Be Managed By A Foreign Company?
Ahmadabad and Jaipur Airports might be controlled by Singapore’s Changi Airport International Group. This is the first time in u . S . A . That a overseas corporation has been allowed to control Indian Airports.
Question eleven. Who Is Operator Of New Delhi Airport?
GMR Group manages airport operations at IGI Airport, New Delhi while AAI manages Air Traffic Services.
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Question 12. Who Is Operator Of Mumbai Airport?
GVK Group manages airport operations at CSI Airport, Mumbai whereas AAI manages Air Traffic Services.
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Question 13. Where Is The Tallest Atc Tower In India And World?
Tallest ATC tower of India is in Mumbai (82m). Once finished, Delhi ATC Tower might be tallest tower in India with a top of one zero one.3m.
Question 14. Where Is World’s Tallest Atc Tower?
World’s tallest ATC Tower is placed at Bangkok’s Suvarnabhumi Airport with an approximate height of 132m.
Question 15. When Did The First Civil Flight Take Place In India?
India’s first business civil flight took place on 18 February, among Allahabad and Naini (now a part of Allahabad itself), It turned into flown with the aid of Henri Piquet, masking a distance of 6 miles. This is considered to be the arena’s first airmail carrier and the start of civil aviation in India.
Question 16. When Did India Celebrated a hundred Years Of Civil Aviation?
In the year 2011, India celebrated one hundred years of Civil Aviation in the us of a commemorating the primary flight that passed off in 1911 between Allahabad and Naini.
Question 17. Who Is Father Of Indian Aviation?
Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy (JRD) Tata is referred to as Father of Indian Aviation. In 1929, he became the first man or woman within the united states of america to be issued with a pilot’s license.
Question 18. Which Is The Largest Aircraft In The World?
Largest Aircraft in the international is Antonov 225 (Antonov is a Russian Aircraft Manufacturer) that is a Cargo Aircraft at the same time as World’s Largest Passenger Aircraft isAirbus 380 (Airbus is European Aircraft Manufacturer).
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Question 19. Which Is World’s First Solar-powered Airport?
Cochin International Airport is the primary airport within the world that absolutely operates on solar power. Cochin airport’s energy solar electricity plant is producing enough energy to be used for all the operational features.
Question 20. Which Is India’s Busiest Airport In Terms Of Air Traffic Movements?
Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi is India’s busiest airport in phrases of air traffic actions as well as Passenger dealing with. Mumbai is at wide variety even as Bengaluru is at third spot.
Question 21. Why Do You Want To Become An Atc?
A royal and revered task with exact talents requirement in an effort to add to my persona.
Question 22. What Is Radar And How Does It Work?
RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging.
Radar transmits the electromagnetic energy pulses in the area. These pulses get reflected from an object e.G. An plane. This received pulse which has very low strength compared to transmitted pulse is known as Echo. The Radar device uses this echo signal to calculate distance and course of the reflecting item.
Question 23. What Are The Various Radar Bands?
Radar operates on UHF and SHF because:
These frequencies are loose from disturbance.
Higher frequency, shorter wavelength, RADAR more effective (as shorter wavelengths are pondered greater efficaciously.)
Question 24. What Is Unambiguous Range Of The Radar?
The Unambiguous range is the most range at which a target can be positioned so one can guarantee that the leading edge of the echo pulse from that concentrate on is received before transmission starts offevolved for the following pulse. The pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) determines this maximum unambiguous range of given radar before ambiguities start to occur.
This variety can be determined by using the use of the following equations:
Rmax = c * ( PRT – PW )/2
Here c= pace of light; PRT=1/PRF
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Question 25. What Is Duty Cycle?
Duty cycle basically represents the fraction of time that a system is in energetic state or in other words, it's far the proportion of one duration in which a sign is active.
For instance, if a device transmits a pulse for 1 2d after which waits for 9 seconds to transmit subsequent pulse, then we cans say that device is active (ON) for 1 sec. And inactive (OFF) for subsequent 9 sec. So general time= 10 seconds. Hence duty cycle is 0.1 (ON-time/Total time).
For a RADAR system, Duty cycle may be observed out by using multiplying pulse width and pulse-repetition frequency.
Question 26. What Is Transponder?
Transponder may be summed up as combination of TRANSmitter+resPONDER. Atransponder is a device utilized in wireless communications, tracking, or manipulate tool. It gets the incoming sign and robotically responds to this signal.
In Air navigation, a transponder is geared up within the plane which responds (through offering aircraft identification and different beneficial information which include velocity, course, altitude of the plane) to the interrogating signal despatched by using Ground based totally secondary radar.
Up-link frequency of Secondary radar: 1030MHz, Down-link frequency of Transponder: 1090 MHz.
Question 27. What Are Advantages And Disadvantages Of Secondary Radar?
Reply signal transmitted by using Transponder may be very robust (not like Echo signal in case of Radar), this presents accurate detection functionality impartial of muddle and weather.
The transmitting strength required of the ground station for a given variety is a good deal reduced, as a result supplying massive economy.
The signal received from the Transponder gives a whole lot of info of the goal inclusive of Speed, Direction, Altitude, identification of the goal and so forth.
It relies upon on aircraft avionics, so the aircraft/target and not using a transponder can not utilize the advantages of secondary radar.
If the target is not cooperating then Secondary radar will now not be able to provide any records. Just like in 09/eleven attacks on America while terrorists switched off the transponders of hijacked aircraft and it changed into not possible for ATC to hint the ones plane. So Secondary radar wishes to be used together with the primary radar in order to keep away from such conditions to get repeated.
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Question 28. What Is Difference Between Primary And Secondary Radar?
Primary Radar is used to pick out goals via transmitting high-frequency alerts closer to it. The transmitted pulses (additionally called Echo) are contemplated through the target after which received by the equal radar. This echo signal is processed to extract target records.
On the alternative hand, Secondary Radar relies on the energetic indicators transmitted through the transponder unit at the airborne goal (e.G. An aircraft). Transponder is a radio receiver that gets the 1030 MHz indicators (interrogation sign transmitted by way of Radar) and transmits 1090 MHz pulse (respond messagewith goal information) back to the Radar.
In context of ATC: Primary Radar is both a bonus and a downside. With Primary radar, even though the target isn't always replying the interrogation indicators or does not actually have transponder unit, ATC Unit can hint/find it on the RADAR although target identification isn't always feasible (Disadvantage). Primary radar continues to be utilized by ATC these days as a backup/complementary gadget to secondary radar, despite the fact that its coverage and records is more restrained.
Secondary Radar provides numerous info (like object identification code, altitude, path, velocity and many others.) of the target which might be transmitted lower back with the aid of a robust response signal by means of the transponder.
Question 29. What Are The Applications Of Radar In Atc?
Various kinds of Radars utilized in Air Traffic Control are as:
Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR): As the name suggests ARSR (an software of SSR) is lengthy variety radar with a typical variety of 300 NM. It operates in L-band and is used in Area Control Center to hold surveillance of en-direction plane.
Surface Movement Radar (SMR): SMR (essentially a Primary Surveillance Radar) is used to offer clear display of all the plane (and other properly-equipped automobiles) on the floor as an resource to the Tower and Ground Controllers to control the visitors safely and successfully at the ground.
Precision Approach Radar (PAR): It is largely an SSR which assists the Air Traffic Controllers running in Approach Control role. PAR provides statistics on identification, air pace, course and altitude of plane inside the air in the region of the airport.
Question 30. What Is Gnss?
GNSS is an acronym for Global Navigation Satellite Systems. GNSS uses cluster of navigation satellites to hint or pinpoint the user-region. The indicators received from GNSS navigation satellites can also be used to locate different gadgets, people or goods at any time.Examples: GPS, GAGAN.
Question 31. What Are Various Gnss Systems In The World?
Some of the GNSS in the global are: GLONASS (Russia), GALILEO (Europe), GPS (USA), GAGAN (India), BeiDou-2 (China).
Question 32. What Is Gps?
GPS or Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite tv for pc-primarily based system owned and maintained through USA Govt. It is an all-climate gadget, used to offer locations and time statistics anywhere inside the global.A easy instance is GPS receiver installed in radio cabs. GPS can offer real time 3D positioning, navigation and timing everywhere on or close to the earth. GPS gadget is used considerably by means of army, industrial and civil users global.
Working: The GPS concept is based on time. The satellites convey very strong atomic clocks which might be synchronized to each different and to floor clocks. GPS satellites continuously transmit their modern time and position. A GPS receiver video display units more than one satellites and solves equations to decide the exact role of the receiver and its deviation from real time.
Question 33. What Is Difference Between Gps And Gagan?
GPS is a satellite based navigation gadget that is used to provide actual time position and time records to the users having GPS receivers. As of now, GPS system has 31 satellites in its constellations which transmit signal to locate any item on or near the earth.
On the opposite hand, GAGAN is an augmentation system that augments the already present GPS constellation. GAGAN provide more accuracy than GPS. This accuracy is end result of processing of GPS satellites facts at GAGAN Master Control Centre and sending the corrected information to the supposed user via geostationary satellites.
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Question 34. What Is Gagan And How Does It Work?
GAGAN is the acronym for GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation. GAGAN is a joint challenge of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) and AAI (Airports Authority of India). Let’s apprehend running of GAGAN little by little.
GPS satellite information is accrued via a community of exactly surveyed floor reference stations that are referred to as INRES(INdian REference Stations). These INRES are strategically positioned across the usa so that whole Indian Airspace can be covered.Total 14 INRES.
Data collected through INRESs is sent to Bengaluru-based INMCC (INdian Master Control Centre)which in turn generates messages to correct any sign errors.
These correction messages are then uplinkedthrough INLUS(INdian Land Uplink Station) and broadcast thru communication satellites (Geostationary) to the person (Aircraft).
Question 35. What Are The Benefits Of Gagan?
One of the prime advantages of GAGAN can be related to Aviation region in which it will offer better accuracy, availability and integrity to GPS indicators for all of the phases of a flight. It will result in gasoline financial savings and decreased carbon emissions. In addition, GAGAN will offer advantages in all modes of transportation like railways, highways, maritime.
Question 36. In Which Layer Do Aircraft Prefer To Fly And Why?
Generally commercial airliners fly in stratosphere or tropopause area which lies at altitudes of nine–12 km (30,000–39,000 ft).This place is clear of terrible climate and has small quantity of clouds in comparison to troposphere. In different words, stratosphere does not have turbulence, so the aircraft can fly extra easily. It permits the aircraft to shop gas.
Question 37. What Type Of Fuel Is Used In Aircraft?
The gasoline used (in plane with fuel turbine engines) is referred to as Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) or Jet Fuel, that's typically very pure, has anti-knock additives and has very high calorific values.2 Widely used ATFs are unleaded Kerosene(Jet A-1, it's far used by most of air carriers inside the international) or Naphtha kerosene blend (Jet B). Other kind of gasoline used (with the aid of Aircraft with inner combustion engines) is AvGas (Aviation gasoline) which is Petroleum based gas.
Question 38. What Are Important Parts That Control The Movement Of Aircraft In The Air?
Although every part of an plane plays a role inside the operation of the plane and that is why those elements are required to be set up on the fuselage; however these 3 components are very important for the motion of the aircraft alongside the 3 axes (Pitch, Roll and Yaw).
Rudder: Allows aircraft to move approximately Yaw axis i.E. Aircraft will turn left or proper with the motion of the Rudder.
Elevator: As the name indicates, Elevator is used to transport the aircraft along the Pitch axis i.E. Aircraft will pass up or down with elevator’s movement.
Aileron: Aileron permits the aircraft to rotate i.E. Motion of aircraft along the Roll axis.
Question 39. What Is Solar Aircraft? Which Solar Aircraft Was In News In Last Year (2015)?
Solar plane is an aircraft this is powered by means of sun power. The plane that turned into in information in Solar Impulse (Si2), a unmarried-seater plane that's able to flying day and night time with the aid of harnessing the solar power. It a subsequent generation aircraft that's on Round-the-international flight and began its 35000 kms adventure on March 9, 2015 from Abu Dhabi (UAE). In India, it first landed in Ahmedabad and then Varanasi earlier than leaving for Myanmar. The task of this flight is: ‘Around the world to promote easy technology.’
Question 40. What Is Antenna?
Antenna is an electrical tool used to convert electrical indicators to radio waves and vice versa. A simple antenna has parts i.E. Transmitter and Receiver.
Question forty one. What Is Duplexer?
Duplexer is a device used in communication structures that may cast off the need of separate transmitter and receiver antenna. It rather switches the single antenna among transmitter and receiver. The duplexer additionally prevents excessive-strength transmitted pulses to enter the receiver as it'd damage the receiver that's highly strength-sensitive tool.
Question 42. What Is Ads-b?
ADS-B is an acronym for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast.ADS-B device makes use of transmissions from aircraft to provide geographical position, stress altitude statistics, positional integrity measures, flight identification, 24 bit plane cope with, speed and different facts that have been determined by means of airborne sensors.
Question forty three. What Is Critical Frequency?
In Sky wave propagation, Critical frequency is the restricting frequency at or under which wave is meditated returned from the ionosphere, above essential frequency the wave penetrates the ionosphere and by no means comes back.So for sky wave propagation the price of frequency f≤ fc.
Question forty four. In Which Frequency Band Atc Communication Takes Place?
VHF Band: Generally Pilot-ATC Communication takes place in this band. However every so often HF Band is used as properly for long range communique where VHF conversation isn't possible. You must recognise that with the boom in frequency, Range of communique gets reduced.
Question 45. What Is Mach Number?
Mach range is a common term utilized in Aviation global that denotes the ratio of air speed to the nearby speed of sound, e.G. Mach 1 denotes the rate identical to the speed of sound.
Question 46. What Is Supersonic Aircraft?
A supersonic aircraft is an aircraft which can exceed the velocity of sound (Mach 1.0) in level flight. (Level flight way whilst aircraft is shifting at a fixed altitude i.E. Now not mountain climbing or descending). Concorde turned into a supersonic plane.
Question 47. Why Uplink And Downlink Frequencies Are Different For Satellite Or Mobile Communication?
Uplink (fu) and Downlink frequencies (fd) are special in order that there may be no interference. Remember that in satellite verbal exchange: fu>fd whereas in Mobile Communication fd>fu.
Reason is higher the frequency, higher may be the strength requirement.
Question 48. What Is The Speed Of Sound?
Speed of sound varies with the temperature. The speed is proportional to the rectangular root of absolutely the temperature, giving an growth of approximately 0.6 m/s according to degree Celsius. Some values are: 340m/s at Sea Level (Temp. 15 C), 331m/s at zero C.