Question 1. What Is Autosar?
AUTOSAR (Automotive Open System Architecture) is a standardization initiative of main automobile producers and providers that changed into based in autumn of 2003. The purpose is the improvement of a reference structure for ECU software that may manage the developing complexity of ECUs in modern-day motors.
Question 2. What Is Swc?
An SWC record is a bundle of precompiled Flash symbols and ActionScript code that allows a Flash or Flex developer to distribute instructions and property, or to avoid recompiling symbols and code in order to not change. ... They are every so often referred to as elegance libraries and cannot be directly accomplished via the Flash Player.
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Question 3. What Is Can And Its Uses?
1. CAN is a multi-master broadcast serial bus fashionable for connecting electronic manipulate unit (ECUs).
2. Controller–area network (CAN or CAN-bus) is a automobile bus wellknown designed to permit microcontrollers a gadgets to communicate with each other inside a car without a bunch pc.
Three. CAN is a message-based totally protocol, designed specially for automobile packages however now extensively utilized in other regions along with commercial automation and clinical device.
4. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is a serial asynchronous bus utilized in instrumentation packages for industries which includes automobiles.
More reliably, e.G., fewer plug-in connectors that would cause errors.
Wiring less complex, more economic.
Easy to put into effect, changes, too.
Additional factors (e.G., manipulate gadgets) are easy to integrate.
Installation location exchangeable with out electric powered issues.
Wire can be identified.
Question 4. What Are The Can Frame Works?
SOF – 1 Dominant
Arbitration Field – eleven bit Identifier, 1 bit RTR (or) eleven bit, 1SRR, 1IDE, 18 bit, 1RTR
Control Field – IDE, r0, 4 bits (DLC)
Data Field – (0-eight) Bytes
CRC Field – 15 bits, Delimiter (1 bit recessive)
ACK Field – 1 bit, Delimiter (1 bit recessive)
EOF – 7 bits recessive
IFS – three bits recessive
Types of frames – Data, far flung, Error frame and Overload frame
Types of mistakes – ACK mistakes, Bit mistakes, Stuff error, Form blunders, CRC errors
Error frame – 0-12 superposition flags, eight recessive (Delimiter)
Overload body – zero-12 superposition flags, 8 recessive (Delimiter)
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Question 5. Why Can Is Having one hundred twenty Ohms At Each End?
To limit the reflection reference, to lessen noise. To make sure that mirrored image does now not cause conversation failure, the transmission line should be terminated.
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Question 6. Why Can Is Message Oriented Protocol?
CAN protocol is a message-primarily based protocol, now not an cope with based totally protocol. This means that messages are not transmitted from one node to every other node based totally on addresses. Embedded in the CAN message itself is the priority and the contents of the data being transmitted. All nodes in the gadget receive each message transmitted on the bus (and could renowned if the message turned into well received). It is as much as each node within the system to determine whether or not the message obtained ought to be straight away discarded or kept to be processed.
A unmarried message may be destined for one specific node to get hold of, or many nodes primarily based on the manner the community and machine are designed. For example, an automotive airbag sensor may be connected through CAN to a protection device router node simplest. This router node takes in different protection system statistics and routes it to all different nodes at the protection machine network. Then all of the different nodes at the protection machine network can obtain the brand new airbag sensor statistics from the router at the same time, acknowledge if the message become obtained well, and determine whether to utilize this information or discard it.
Question 7. Can Logic What It Follows?
Wired AND common sense.
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Question eight. What Is Can Arbitration?
CAN Arbitration is not anything but the node trying to take manage on the CAN bus.
Question nine. How Can Will Follow The Arbitration?
CSMA/CD + AMP (Arbitration on Message Priority)
Two bus nodes have got a transmission request. The bus get right of entry to method is CSMA/CD+AMP (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and Arbitration on Message Priority). According to this algorithm both community nodes wait until the bus is loose (Carrier Sense). In that case the bus is free both nodes transmit their dominant begin bit (Multiple Access). Every bus node reads again step by step from the bus all through the whole message and compares the transmitted cost with the received price.
As long as the bits are identical from both transmitters nothing happens. The first time there was a distinction – in this situation the seventh bit of the message – the arbitration technique takes location: Node A transmits a dominant level, node B transmits a recessive degree. The recessive degree will be overwritten by using the dominant stage.
This is detected through node B because the transmitted cost isn't always identical to the acquired cost (Collision Detection). At this factor of time node B has misplaced the arbitration, stops the transmission of any similarly bit straight away and switches to get hold of mode, because the message that has gained the arbitration have to in all likelihood be processed by way of this node (Arbitration on Message Priority)
For example, remember 3 CAN gadgets each trying to transmit messages:
• Device 1 – address 433 (decimal or 00110110001 binary)
• Device 2 – address 154 (00010011010)
• Device three – deal with 187 (00010111011)
Assuming all three see the bus is idle and start transmitting at the equal time, this is how the arbitration works out. All three gadgets will drive the bus to a dominant nation for the begin-of-frame (SOF) and the 2 most enormous bits of every message identifier.
Each tool will monitor the bus and determine success. When they write bit eight of the message ID, the tool writing message ID 433 will be aware that the bus is inside the dominant kingdom while it was seeking to allow it's recessive, so it'll expect a collision and surrender for now. The ultimate devices will preserve writing bits until bit 5, then the device writing message ID 187 will notice a collision and abort transmission. This leaves the tool writing message ID 154 ultimate.
It will preserve writing bits at the bus till whole or an mistakes is detected. Notice that this method of arbitration will constantly reason the lowest numerical price message ID to have priority. This equal approach of bit-sensible arbitration and prioritization applies to the 18-bit extension in the prolonged layout as properly.
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Question 10. What Is The Speed Of Can?
40m @1Mbps and if the cable period increases will lower the speed, due to RLC at the cable.
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Question 11. If Master Sends 764 And Slave Sends 744 Which Will Get The Arbitration?
Starts from MSB, first nibble is same, Master sends 7, slaves additionally sends 7 the message with more dominant bits will benefit the arbitration, lowest the message identifier higher the concern.
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Question 12. Standard Can And Extended Can Difference?
Number of identifiers can be accommodated for standard body are 2power11.
Number of identifiers extra examine to base frame, for extended frame are 2power29.
IDE bit – 1 for extended body.
IDE bit – zero for Standard frame.
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Question 13. What Is Bit Stuffing?
CAN uses a Non-Return-to-Zero protocol, NRZ-five, with bit stuffing. The idea in the back of bit stuffing is to offer a assured side on the signal so the receiver can resynchronize with the transmitter earlier than minor clock discrepancies between the two nodes can purpose a problem. With NRZ-five the transmitter transmits at most 5 consecutive bits with the equal value. After five bits with the identical price (zero or one), the transmitter inserts a stuff bit with the alternative kingdom.
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Question 14. What Is The Use Of Bit Stuffing?
Long NRZ messages reason troubles in receivers:
• Clock glide approach that if there are no edges, receivers lose track of bits.
• Periodic edges permit receiver to resynchronize to sender clock.
Question 15. What Are The Functions Of Can Transceiver?
The transceiver offers differential transmit capability to the bus and differential get hold of capability to the CAN controller. Transceiver affords an advanced interface between the protocol controller and the physical bus in a Controller Area Network (CAN) node.
Typically, every node in a CAN system need to have a tool to convert the digital signals generated by a CAN controller to alerts appropriate for transmission over the bus cabling (differential output). It additionally affords a buffer among the CAN controller and the excessive-voltage spikes that may be generated on the CAN bus by way of outside assets (EMI, ESD, electric transients, and many others.).
The can transceiver is a device which detects the sign levels which might be used at the CAN bus to the logical sign levels diagnosed with the aid of a microcontroller.
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Question sixteen. Functionality Of Data Link Layer In Can?
LLC (Logical Link Control): Overload control, notification, Message filtering and Recovery management functions.
MAC (Medium Access Control): Encapsulation/ de-capsulation, error detection and control, stuffing and de-stuffing and serialization/de-serialization.
Question 17. What Is Meant By Synchronization?
Synchronization is timekeeping which calls for the coordination of occasions to function a gadget in unison.
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Question 18. What Is Meant By Hard Synchronization And Soft Synchronization?
Hard Synchronization to be performed at each edge from recessive-to-dominant area all through Bus Idle. Additionally, Hard Synchronization is required for each acquired SOF bit. An SOF bit can be received each throughout Bus Idle, and also for the duration of Suspend Transmission and on the stop of Interframe Space. Any node disables Hard Synchronization if it samples an edge from recessive to dominant or if it begins to ship the dominant SOF bit.
Two varieties of synchronization are supported:
Hard synchronization is finished with a falling aspect on the bus while the bus is idle, that is interpreted as a Start of frame (SOF). It restarts the internal Bit Time Logic.
Soft synchronization is used to prolong or shorten a piece time even as a CAN body is received.
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Question 19. What Is The Difference Between Function And Physical Addressing?
Functional addressing is an addressing scheme that labels messages primarily based upon their operation code or content material. Physical addressing is an addressing scheme that labels messages based upon the bodily deal with area in their supply and/or destination(s).
Question 20. What Is Kwp2000?
KWP 2000(ISO14230) is a Diagnostic communications widespread. Specifies possible system configurations using the K & L traces. As 9141-2 but limited to the bodily characteristics. Specifies possible system configurations the use of the K & L strains.
5 Baud awaken as 9141- 2
New fast initialisation approach
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Question 21. What Is Obdii?
On-Board Diagnostics in an car context is a accepted time period regarding a car’s self-diagnostic and reporting functionality.
Question 22. Why Diagnostic Standards?
As structures were given greater complex the link among motive and symptom became less apparent. This supposed that electronic structures needed to have a few stage of self prognosis and to communicate to the outdoor world. Initially many structures used their very own protocols which supposed that garages had to have a big range of gear – even to diagnose a single vehicle.
Question 23. What Is Meant By Verification And Validation?
Verification and Validation (V&V) is the manner of checking that a software program gadget meets specs and that it fulfills its intended reason. It is generally a part of the software program testing technique of a venture.
According to the Capability Maturity Model (CMMI-SW v1.1),
Verification: The procedure of comparing software to decide whether the goods of a given improvement section satisfy the situations imposed on the begin of that segment.
Validation: The manner of evaluating software throughout or on the quit of the development process to decide whether it satisfies detailed necessities.
Verification shows conformance with specification; validation shows that the program meets the patron’s needs.
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Question 24. Can You Have Two Transmitters Using The Same Exact Header Field?
No that could produce a bus struggle.
• Unless you've got middleware that ensures simplest one node can transmit at a time.
For example: use a low priority message as a token to emulate token-passing.
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Question 25. Formula For Baudrate Calculation?
The baud price is calculated as:
baud charge (bits in keeping with 2nd) = 18.432 x 10^6 / BRP / (1 + TSEG1 + TSEG2)
Question 26. What Happen When Two Can Nodes Are Sending Same Identifier At A Same Time?
Two nodes at the community aren't allowed to send messages with the same identity. If two nodes try to ship a message with the same identity on the identical time arbitration will no longer paintings. Instead, one of the transmitting nodes will locate that his message is distorted outdoor of the arbitration subject.
The nodes will then use the mistake dealing with of CAN, which in this case ultimately will cause one of the transmitting node being switched off (bus-off mode).
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