Question 1. Define Cabir Worm?
Cabir bug is one of the malicious software, normally referred as malware. It makes use of Bluetooth generation for sending itself to any other further vulnerable tool. As it is self-replicative, is it categorised as a malicious program.
Cabir worms are presently affects cellular telephone which uses the Symbian Series 60 User Interface Platform and function Bluetooth wireless technology.
Question 2. Define Dos Attack?
Denial Of Service assault. It attempts for making pc assets unavailable to its supposed customers. Its concerted efforts of someone are to prevent a website or provider from functioning effectively, quickly or indefinitely. The target web page classes are banks, credit card payment gateways and root call servers.
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Question three. Define Ip Spoofing?
Sending messages by intruder to a pc gadget with an IP deal with that shows the message is sent from a trusted host, for gaining unauthorized get right of entry to to computer systems. The hacker/intruder first make use of a variety of techniques for finding an IP deal with of a depended on host. Later he alters the packet headers, so as to provide an illusion that the packets are sent from the host.
Question 4. Define Bluetooth Dongle?
Bluetooth dongle is a generation that allows a PC for point to multi-factor friendly connectivity with other similar Bluetooth gadgets, like PDA, cell telephone. The devices permit the conversation between devices within a number of 30 ft apprx.
Certain recent desktops and laptops are built-in with Bluetooth dongle to talk. Bluetooth permits a unmarried adapter to allow more than one gadgets for speaking with one machine to another.
Question five. Define Bluetooth Profiles?
Order to explain the way of imposing person models accomplishments, the profiles are evolved. A variety of consumer eventualities are described by way of the consumer models wherein Bluetooth plays the radio transmission. Profile stack describes the options in every protocol which might be obligatory for each profile, and defines variety of parameters for each protocol. The profiles are concerned for lowering the risk of interoperability issues amongst diverse merchandise of various producers.
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Question 6. Can You Please Explain The Difference Between Power Classes In Bluetooth?
Device Power Class, Max Output Power (mW), Max Output Power (dBm), Expected Range
Class 1, 100mW, 20dBm, 100m.
Class 2, 2.5mW, 4dBm, 10m.
Class 3, 1mW, 0dBm, 10cm.
Question 7. Describe Ldap And Also Define Its Uses?
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is one of the listing carrier protocols. It runs over TCP/IP. LDAP directory services implements a purchaser/server version. Directory records is to be had on one or more LDAP servers. The server responds with a pointer to some other LDAP server.
Uses: LDAP lets in the users to access the facts in the listing to change. Online smartphone directories and e mail directories are a number of the uses of LDAP. LDAP directory has utilities to alter, delete, and seek the entries.
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Question eight. Can You Please Explain The Difference Between Bluetooth And Infra Red?
Connectivity: One-to-one connections are made by way of infrared gadgets, whilst Bluetooth devices can shape whilst all of the gadgets have diagnosed themselves to each different.
Versatility: Bluetooth gadgets could work together; wherein as infrared devices need to be specially designed for unique devices.
Range: Class three Bluetooth gadgets works at about 30 feet; at the same time as infrared is rated at 3 feet.
Orientation: Infrared gadgets are direct line-of-sight; where as Bluetooth devices may want to talk even in times of separation by using barriers. Security: Bluetooth is less comfy than infrared due to the omni directional nature; wherein as infrared indicators could simplest be intercepted by way of a tool.
Question 9. What Is Lmp (hyperlink Management Protocol)?
Multiple records links are blended for the formation of a single traffic engineering hyperlink, for the purpose of scale capability. The in-band messaging isn't always confined by means of the control of TE links, however may be used by the use of out-of-band strategies.
The Link Management Protocol runs between a pair of nodes and is utilized for handling TE links. LMP is especially used for preserving manage channel connectivity, verifying the bodily connectivity of the facts links, correlating the link assets statistics, suppressing downstream alarms and localizing the link screw ups for protection/healing purposes.
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Question 10. What Types Of Companies Are Likely To Adopt Or Promote Bluetooth Technology?
Companies likely to undertake this era include, however aren't restrained to, software program builders, network providers, silicon vendors, peripheral and camera manufacturers, mobile PC and handheld tool producers, patron electronics producers and extra.
Question eleven. What Companies Are Involved In The Bluetooth Initiative?
Global technology leaders Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Intel and Toshiba based the Bluetooth SIG in 1998. These businesses are now supported by way of over 1,000 different companies with a huge range of expertise, including Widcomm, Inc.
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Question 12. Are Different Brands Of Bluetooth Products Compatible?
Yes. They need to. The Bluetooth Logo Certification Program requires Bluetooth merchandise to interoperate with merchandise manufactured via other providers; the ones merchandise that do not interoperate will no longer be allowed to apply the Bluetooth logo.
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Question 13. Is Bluetooth Practical For Use With Mobile Devices?
Yes. One concern for cell computing customers is energy intake. Bluetooth radios are very low energy, drawing as little as zero.3mA in standby mode and 30mA in the course of sustained information transmissions. Bluetooth radios change amongst electricity-saving modes in which device hobby is reduced to maximise the cell strength supply.
Question 14. What Kind Of Encryption Will Be Used For Bluetooth Security?
The Bluetooth specification 1.Zero describes the hyperlink encryption algorithm as a flow cipher the use of four LFSR (linear feedback shift registers). The sum of the width of the LFSRs is 128, and the spec says “the effective key period is selectable among 8 and 128 bits”.
This arrangement permits Bluetooth to be used in nations with guidelines restricting encryption electricity, and “facilitate a destiny improve direction for the security with out the need for a high-priced remodel of the algorithms and encryption hardware” in keeping with the Bluetooth specification. Key generation and authentication seems to be the use of the 8-round SAFER+ encryption algorithm.
The facts to be had shows that Bluetooth security can be ok for most purposes; however users with higher safety necessities will need to employ more potent algorithms to make sure the security in their records.
Question 15. What Is The Range Of Bluetooth Transmitter/receivers?
Bluetooth is designed for very low energy use, and the transmission range will handiest be 10m, about 30ft. High-powered Bluetooth gadgets will enable stages as much as 100m (300ft). Considering the layout philosophy behind Bluetooth, even the 10m variety is adequate for the functions Bluetooth is meant for. Later versions of the Bluetooth spec may additionally allow longer stages.
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Question sixteen. What Is The Data Throughput Speed Of A Bluetooth Connection?
Bluetooth transfers statistics at a price of 721 Kbps, that is from 3 to 8 times the average speed of parallel and serial ports, respectively. This bandwidth is able to transmitting voice, statistics, video and nonetheless images
Question 17. Will Bluetooth And Wireless Lan (wlan) Interfere With Each Other?
No, each Bluetooth and WLAN can co-exist. Since Bluetooth gadgets use Frequency Hopping and most WLANs use Direct Sequence Spreading strategies they each seem as historical past noise to the alternative and have to not motive any perceivable overall performance issues.
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Question 18. Will Other Rf (radio Frequency) Devices Interfere With Bluetooth Devices?
No. Bluetooth radios perform on the unlicensed 2.Four GHz (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) frequency band this is shared among other gadgets (microwave ovens, cordless phones, storage door openers, and so forth. ). Bluetooth radios switch frequencies at this type of fast tempo (1,six hundred instances in line with 2nd) and the data packets are so small that interference from different RF sources is noticeably unlikely. Bluetooth is a strong communication gadget.
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Question 19. What Are The Problems With Older Versions (1.0 And 1.0 B)?
Versions 1.Zero and 1.0 B had severa troubles and the various producers had splendid difficulties in making their merchandise interoperable. 1.Zero and 1.0B also had mandatory Bluetooth Hardware Device Address (BD_ADDR) transmission within the handshaking procedure, rendering anonymity not possible at a protocol level, which was a main setback for offerings deliberate for use in Bluetooth environments, along with Consumerism.
Question 20. What Are Different Classes In Bluetooth?
Bluetooth is a radio fashionable and communications protocol on the whole designed for low strength intake, with a short variety (strength elegance dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, one hundred meters) primarily based round low-value transceiver microchip in each tool.
Bluetooth we could these gadgets communicate with every different whilst they're in variety. The devices use a radio communications system, in order that they do no longer have to be in line of sight of each other, and can even be in other rooms, so long as the received energy is high sufficient.
Question 21. What Are Bluetooth Profiles?
A profile is an outline of how to use a specification to put into effect a selected function. The International Standards Organization (ISO) first got here up with the idea of profiles. In Bluetooth, there are numerous profiles available and they're arranged in a hierarchical style. For example, for you to use the headset profile, a device ought to also encompass the decrease level profiles which include the serial port and wellknown get admission to profiles.
Question 22. What Are Some Of The Uses Of Bluetooth?
Depending at the Bluetooth profiles included at the tool, Bluetooth generation has the functionality to wirelessly synchronize and switch statistics among gadgets. The Bluetooth audio capabilities may be used for headset and fingers loose programs. The exact capability supplied by way of a Bluetooth enabled tool depends at the Bluetooth profiles included.
Question 23. How Does Bluetooth Fit In With Wifi?
The 802.11b (WiFi) preferred is typically used for wi-fi networking. Bluetooth isn't a competitor with 802.11b, however as an alternative a complement to it. While 802.11b is typically a replacement for stressed out nearby place networking, Bluetooth is greater usually used as a alternative for cables between man or woman devices. Bluetooth is designed to hyperlink devices inside a completely brief range (up to 33 feet ). Bluetooth is part of the 802.15 popular.
Question 24. What Is The History Of Bluetooth?
Bluetooth become initiated by way of Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba in early 1998. These companies later fashioned a special interest organization called the Bluetooth SIG. The Bluetooth 1.0 specs had been released on July 26, 1999, however the era has most effective currently come to be inexpensive enough for big use.
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Question 25. What Is It - A Technology, A Standard, An Initiative, Or A Product?
Bluetooth wireless technology is a de facto general, as well as a specification for small-form thing, low-price, short variety radio links between cellular PCs, mobile telephones and other portable gadgets. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is an enterprise organization consisting of leaders inside the telecommunications, computing, and networking industries which can be using improvement of the technology and bringing it to market
Question 26. Is Bluetooth An Ieee Standard, Like Ieee 802.Eleven And Ethernet?
Being an IEEE widespread will be a big plus to great adoption of Bluetooth, and IEEE 802.15 working group for private vicinity networks (PAN) introduced that they'll be adopting Bluetooth as the IEEE 802.15 popular.
Question 27. Why Is Bluetooth 2.Zero Better?
The principal capabilities of Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.Zero + EDR are:
three instances quicker transmission speed (up to ten instances in certain instances)
Lower electricity consumption via reduced duty cycle
Simplification of multi-hyperlink eventualities because of greater available bandwidth
Backwards well matched to earlier variations
Further progressed BER (Bit Error Rate) overall performance
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Question 28. Name Few Applications Of Bluetooth?
Wireless manage of and communication between a cell smartphone and a arms unfastened headset or car kit. This is the maximum famous use.
Wireless networking among PCs in a limited space and where little bandwidth is required.
Wireless communications with PC input devices which include mouses and keyboards and output gadgets inclusive of printers.
Transfer of documents among gadgets through OBEX.
Transfer of touch info, calendar appointments, and reminders among devices thru OBEX.
Replacement of conventional wired serial communications in take a look at system, GPS receivers and scientific gadget.
For remote controls wherein infrared become historically used.
Sending small classified ads from Bluetooth enabled marketing hoardings to other, discoverable, Bluetooth devices.
Wireless manage of a video games console, Nintendo's Wii and Sony's PlayStation three will both use Bluetooth technology for their wi-fi controllers.
Sending instructions and software program to the upcoming LEGO Mindstorms NXT as opposed to infra crimson.
Question 29. How Many Devices Can Communicate Concurrently?
A Bluetooth device playing the role of the “grasp” can speak with up to 7 gadgets playing the function of the “slave”. This network of “organization of up to eight gadgets” (1 grasp + 7 slaves) is known as a piconet. A piconet is an ad-hoc computer network of gadgets the use of Bluetooth technology protocols to permit one grasp device to interconnect with up to seven energetic slave gadgets (because a 3-bit MAC address is used). Up to 255 similarly slave gadgets can be inactive, or parked, which the grasp device can convey into energetic popularity at any time.
Question 30. What Is Pairing?
Pairs of devices might also set up a trusted dating by way of mastering (by means of consumer input) a shared mystery known as a “passkey”. A device that desires to talk most effective with a relied on tool can cryptographically authenticate the identity of the alternative device. Trusted gadgets may additionally encrypt the data that they change over the air so that no one can listen in.
The encryption can but be turned off and passkeys are saved on the device's report gadget and no longer the Bluetooth chip itself. Since the Bluetooth address is everlasting a pairing will be preserved even though the Bluetooth call is modified. Pairs can be deleted at any time via either tool. Devices will usually require pairing or will prompt the owner earlier than it lets in a faraway tool to apply any or maximum of its services. Some devices together with Sony Ericsson phones will commonly receive OBEX commercial enterprise playing cards and notes with none pairing or activates. Certain printers and get admission to factors will allow any device to apply its offerings via default similar to unsecured Wi-Fi networks.
Question 31. How Secure A Bluetooth Device Is?
Bluetooth uses the SAFER+ set of rules for authentication and key technology. The E0 circulation cipher is used for encrypting packets. This makes eavesdropping on Bluetooth-enabled gadgets extra tough.
Question 32. What Is Bluetooth Sig?
Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) : Bluetooth wireless era is revolutionizing personal connectivity through providing freedom from stressed out connections. It is a specification for a small-shape thing, low-fee radio answer imparting hyperlinks among cell computer systems, cell telephones, other transportable handheld gadgets and automobiles, as well as connectivity to the Internet.
The Bluetooth SIG, produced from leaders inside the telecommunications, computing, automotive and patron electronics industries, is driving development of the era and bringing it to market.
The Bluetooth SIG includes Promoter member groups Agere, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia and Toshiba, and heaps of Associate and Adopter member groups. The Bluetooth SIG, Inc. Headquarters are positioned in Overland Park, Kansas, U.S.A.