Question 1. What Are The Steps Involved In The Concreting Process, Explain?
Batching: The technique of dimension of the different materials for the making of concrete is referred to as batching. Batching is commonly completed in approaches: volume batching and weight batching. In case of quantity batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it's miles accomplished via the weight.
Mixing: In order to create accurate concrete the integration of the substances must be first carried out in dry circumstance and after it moist condition. The two general strategies of mixing are: hand blending and machine mixing.
Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete aggregate is created it should be transported to its final region. The concrete is positioned on shape works and have to constantly be dropped on its very last location as carefully as possible.
Compaction of concrete: When concrete is located it may have air bubbles entrapped in it that could result in the discount of the electricity via 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the method of compaction is executed. Compaction is usually done in two approaches: via hand or through using vibrators.
Question 2. Describe Briefly The Various Methods Of Concrete Curing?
Curing is the method of preserving the moisture and temperature situations for freshly deployed concrete. This is achieved for small period of time to allow the hardening of concrete.
The strategies which might be involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete consists of:
Spraying of water: on partitions, and columns may be cured by way of sprinkling water.
Wet protecting of floor: may be cured by the use of the floor with wet gunny bags or straw
Ponding: the horizontal surfaces together with the slab and floors may be cured by way of stagnating the water.
Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete devices steam can be cured with the aid of passing it over the gadgets that are under closed chambers. It lets in quicker curing manner and consequences in quicker recuperation.
Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be carried out on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a completely long time.
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Question 3. What Do You Understand By “preset” During The Installation Process Of Bridge Bearings?
During the installation of bridge bearings the scale of the upper plates is decreased to shop the cloth costs. This manner is called preset.
Generally the top bearing plate contains of the following components:
Length of bearing
2 x irreversible movement.
2 x reversible motion.
The bearing first of all is placed proper inside the center point of the upper bearing plate. No directional results of irreversible motion is taken into consideration. But because the irreversible motion normally takes region in a single course best the displaced path is positioned faraway from the midpoint. In such instances the length of the upper plate is identical to the period of the length of the bearing + irreversible movement + 2 x reversible movement.
Question 4. Why Are Steel Plates Inserted Inside Bearings In Elastomeric Bearings?
In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ characteristic as a tender spring it should be made to permit it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by way of sincerely growing the restricting amount of the lateral bulging. In many instances on the way to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing using steel plates is made. Once metal plates are covered in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restrained dramatically, additionally the deflection of the bearing is decreased in comparison to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metallic plates does no longer affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.
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Question 5. What Reinforcements Are Used In The Process Of Prestressing?
The important styles of reinforcements utilized in prestressing are:
Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses results in stress in the back of the loaded place of the anchor blocks. This consequences in the breaking off of the floor concrete. The most probably causes of such forms of stresses are Poisson`s effects pressure interoperability or via the strain trajectory shapes.
Equilibrium reinforcements: This sort of reinforcements are required wherein several anchorages exist in which the prestressing masses are implemented in a sequential manner.
Bursting Reinforcements: These varieties of stresses arise in cases in which the pressure trajectories are concave toward the line of motion of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the shape of bursting is needed.
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Question 6. In The Design Of Bridge Arguments What Considerations Should Be Made To Select The Orientation Of The Wing Walls?
Some of the most common preparations of wing partitions in instances of bridge arguments are as follows:
Wing partitions parallel to abutments: This method is taken into consideration to take least quantity of time to build and is easy as well. But at the drawback this technique isn't the most low-priced. The advantage of this sort of design being that they motive the least quantity of disturbance to the slope embankment.
Wing partitions at an perspective to abutments: This layout technique is considered to be the maximum low-cost in phrases of material fee.
Wing walls perpendicular to abutments: The feature of this layout is it offers an alignment non-stop with the bridge decks lending a help to the parapets.
Question 7. In Case If Concrete Box Girder Bridges How Is The Number Of Cells Determined?
When the intensity of a field girder bridge exceed 1/sixth or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design advocated is that of a single cellular box girder bridge. But in case the intensity of the bridge is decrease than 1/6th of the bridge width then a dual-mobile or in some cases a couple of mobile is the preferred preference. One should also be aware that even within the instances of wider bridges in which there depths are relatively low the quantity of cells need to be minimized. This is in order there may be incredibly now not tons development inside the transverse load distribution when the variety of cells of the container girder is better than 3 or more.
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Question eight. Under What Circumstances Should Pot Bearings Be Used Instead Of Elastomeric Bearings?
Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in conditions wherein there are probabilities of excessive vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings usually require a huge bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This isn't always viable to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also using elastomeric bearings ends in the uneven distribution of pressure at the piers. This outcomes in a few highly triggered stresses to be centered on the piers henceforth negative them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are desired over elastomeric bearings in such cases.
Question nine. Why Should Pumping Be Not Used In Case Of Concreting Works?
During the pumping operation the pump exerted stress have to conquer any friction among the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head whilst the concrete is positioned above the pumps. Since handiest water is pump capable, all the stress generated is through the water this is present inside the concrete. The important trouble because of pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and decrease those results, usually the proportion of the cement is expanded so that it will growth the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the mixture grading can hugely enhance the concrete pump capacity.
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Question 10. Why Should Curing Not Be Done By Ponding And Polythene Sheets?
The number one motive of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly positioned to the ecosystem and with the intention to reduce the temperature gradient across the pass-phase of the concrete. Ponding is not desired for curing as this approach of thermal curing is significantly laid low with bloodless winds.
In addition to that in ponding large quantities of water is used and has to be disposed off from the development web sites. Polythene sheets are used on the premise that it creates an airtight surroundings around the concrete surface henceforth lowering the possibilities of evaporation over clean concrete surfaces. But the use of polythene can be a downside as it can be easily blown away via winds and also the water lost by using self-desiccation cannot be replenished.
Question 11. What Are The Different Type Of Slump Test Indications?
Slump exams are performed to empirically degree the paintings potential of clean concrete. It is used to degree the consistency of the concrete. In preferred there are 3 special styles of slumps that arise in slump assessments.
They are as follows:
True Slump: This kind of slump is characterised by way of the overall drop of the concrete mass frivolously without seen symptoms of deterioration or disintegration.
Shear Slump: It shows that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of droop leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth ultimately effecting the durability of the concrete.
Collapse Slump: This kind of stoop is shows that the mix of concrete is sincerely too moist. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.
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Question 12. Why Is Propping Required For Long Structures Once The Form Work Is Removed?
Once the method of concreting is executed the putting of the formworks have to be carried out as soon as possible as put off in this method can lead to the discoloration of the concrete systems. In case of lengthy structures especially long span systems as soon as the structures have attained sufficient power to aid themselves it is crucial to offer them with propping as creep deflection can take area that can substantially lessen the integrity of the structure.
Due to the above mentioned reasons propping ought to be achieved after the removal of formwork. Also the props have to now not be made to face long as it could lead to overstress for the systems.
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Question thirteen. Explain The Mechanism Of Cavitations In Pipes And Drains?
The formation of air bubbles in a fluid because of low stress situations lower than the saturation stress is referred to as cavitations. This is considered to be a excessive capacity damage condition wherein the strength and durability of the pipes may be significantly reduced. Cavitation works on the precept of Bernoulli's Equation.
When fluids are at high velocities the stress head of fluids reduce for this reason. But for the reason that fluid pressure is lower than the saturation stress the dissolved gases get launched from the flowing fluid. These air bubbles suddenly disintegrate on getting into a area of excessive strain. This ends in the damage of the pipelines as a high stage of dynamic strain is created.
Question 14. For What Purpose Bedding Is Used Under Storm Water Drains, Explain?
Beddings are generally made of granular or concrete materials. They are mostly used for the subsequent functions:
They are used to offer a more uniform guide for the beneath pipes in order that the bending moment longitudinally may be decreased greatly.
In order to allow the pipes to get extra load-assisting power.
They also are used to behave as a platform to acquire a extra accurate alignment and stage pre and submit creation.
In case of pipes which contain spigot and socket joints, it enables pipes to get supported alongside pipe lengths in region of sockets. Otherwise it may result in uneven strain being triggered on the pipes sooner or later detrimental it.
Question 15. Why Are Pull-out Tests Performed For Soil Nails?
Pull out checks are finished for in the main the following reasons:
In order to locate and the verification of the bond power a number of the soil and the grout followed during the design of soil nails. This is considered to be as the primary objective of appearing pull out assessments for soil nails.
For the detection of any slippage or occurrence of creeps.
To locate the elastic and deformations (plastic) of any of the take a look at nails employed. Observations are made during the loading and unloading cycles of the soil nails repetitively.
To achieve the perfect balance the test nails have to constantly be loaded in order that the remaining soil/grout combination with an top restriction of 80%.
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Question sixteen. Describe Briefly The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Using Plastic And Timber Fenders?
The advantages and disadvantages of using plastic fenders are as follows:
Plastic fenders are low in energy with a fantastically excessive resistance to abrasion. Plastic fenders are proof against chemical and organic attacks. Plastic fenders have slight power absorption capacity. The berthing reactions are also comparatively mild and depends on the point of contact. Also in view that they are crafted from recycled material they are environmental friendly.
The benefits and drawbacks of the usage of timber fenders are:
wood fenders are low in strength and are very prone to marine borer assaults and rotting. The electricity absorption capability could be very low. Also commonly the contact pressure among the vessels and the fender are high.
Question 17. Explain Why Concrete Barriers Have Curved Surface Profiles?
The concrete safety fencings are made to comprise cars in their carriageway being travelled so that you can reduce the probabilities of rebounding into the roads leading to extra dangers. In the case of everyday fencings upon car crashes the fencings provide away in an effort to soak up as tons energy as possible henceforth lowering the impact at the automobiles.
But inside the case of concrete barriers their motive is not to take in power of automobiles crashing into the barrier but to retain them. They have a curved layout to be able to permit the cars that hit them to barely go up at the barrier however no longer overturn. They additionally save you the car from again getting lower back on the street by means of rebounds. This allows in hugely reducing the possibilities of different car hazards.
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Question 18. Why Is The Use Of Granular Sub-base In Concrete Carriageways Not Preferred, Explain?
Some of the motives why granular sub-base isn't favored in concrete carriageways:
Sub bases are permeable and as a result water can seep via them easily. The soil debris get pumped out via the joints on the application of traffic hundreds. This results within the introduction of voids under the pavement shape. This leads to the weakening of the concrete surface and it could crack effortlessly upon excessive visitors hundreds.
Instead if lean concrete is used for carriageways it greatly increases the energy of the roads and the weight carrying ability of the roads is multiplied.
Sub-bases implementation calls for quite a few workmanship that may result in an un-uniform distribution of the sub-base. This can cause the cracking of the carriageway while there's extreme visitors loading.
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Question 19. Why Are Separation Membranes Used Between Concrete Pavement Slab And Sub-base?
The purpose of separation membrane among the concrete pavement slab and the sub-base are as follows:
The separation membrane reduces the frictional forces among the concrete slabs and the sub-base. The membrane aids the movement of the concrete slab in connection with the sub-base whilst modifications inside the level of the moisture and temperature occurs.
It aids inside the segregation of sub-base substances from freshly located concrete.
The separation membrane additionally allows within the discount of cement and water loss in the shape of immature concrete. Immature concrete greatly influences the strength of the concrete. It also impacts the sturdiness of it.
A accurate instance of a separation membranes is polythene sheeting that's usually used.
Question 20. In The Roof Of A Pumping Station Explain Briefly The Components Of A Waterproofing System?
The additives of a typical waterproofing machine on the roof of a pumping station are as follows:
Right above the structural end level of the roof ( concrete ) a uniform thickness screed is implemented in an effort to facilitate the application of the waterproofing membrane. The floor provide for the membrane need to always possess good brotherly love houses and ought to be thin with the intention to prevent any un-uniformity. This skinny layer also acts as a layer of thermal insulation.
Right above this sediment the waterproofing membrane is deployed to at ease the water tightness of the roof.
In order to enhance the thermal insulation of the roof an insulation board is sometime placed right above the waterproof membrane. The insulation board facilitates within the upkeep of a strong temperature in both weathers.
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Question 21. During Reclamation How Can The Occurrence Of Mud Waves Can Be Rectified?
There are several solution to the rectification of the hassle of dust waves:
Complete elimination of all of the disturbed dust: This method may be taken into consideration to be one of the fastest methods. As soon because the disturbed dust is eliminated a few filling cloth is used to update the disturbed dust. But economically this approach can be highly-priced compared to others.
Accelerated consolidation of disturbed mud: In this method surcharging masses are placed on pinnacle of the mud waves. Along with this band drains are hooked up to accelerate the consolidation process. This approach is quite gradual in comparison to the other techniques.
Partial elimination of the disturbed dust: This method is the hybrid of the above two strategies where the pinnacle layer is eliminated while the decrease stage is treated with the surcharging procedure.
Question 22. In Reclamation Works What Are The Importance Of Geotextiles And Sand?
The primary functions of geotextiles and sand in reclamation works are as follows:
Geotextiles: They are used to split the marine dust from the reclamation fill. Also geotextiles are used as reinforcements in reclamation strategies to boom its stability. It continues to be debated as to whether or not the usage of geotextiles is higher or are the vintage processes followed are higher as the performance has not been comparable to the traditional techniques.
Sand: In reclamation manner sand is used to unfold the load of any future public dumps placed on top of it. Sand additionally acts as a drainage for the excess pore water stress of band drain installations.
Question 23. In Block Work Seawalls What Is The Purpose Of Slip Joints?
Joints which might be formed from the cope degree to the toe degree of seawalls thru a whole vertical plane are known as slip joints. Such joints are designed with the intention to deal with the differential settlements between the seawalls adjoining panels. In the slip joints the aggregates in the half of-rounds channels permits a few vertical moves.
These vertical actions are prompted by using differential settlements. This allows in the interlocking of the adjoining panels of the seawalls to link the panels in a single unit in opposition to the earth pressure ( lateral ) that is exerted on the seawalls.
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Question 24. For A Washout Valve Why Are Two Gate Valves Required In Normal Practice?
The washout valves are usually used for everyday maintenance works which includes that of water major. This can be want to permit water to waft out all through the cleaning of the water fundamental. The junctions at which a pipe branches out to a washout factor usually a gate valve is mounted in order that the two pipelines are separated. The gate valve installed above commonly stays open in the course of ordinary operation. Another gate valve is installed further downstream and this stays closed at some point of normal operation of the washout valve.
In case this valve is not set up then the pipe segment of the branched out pipe would remain dry throughout normal operation and excessive chances of harm and leakage can take region. When the downstream valve is set up the branched out water most important incorporates water underneath ordinary operation. With gate valves mounted a leakage can be detected at once.
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Question 25. What Are The Different Approaches In Designing The Floors Of The Service Reservoirs?
In standard there are essential strategies of designing the reservoir floors to prevent leakage of water due to seasonal and shrinkage moves
In this method the motion joints of the reservoir floor panels are such that the free expansion and contraction of the panels takes place. Every panel is remoted from the alternative panels and panels have a sliding layer among them to help in sliding.
The 2d technique does no longer offer any room free of charge motion. With seasonal and shrinkage movements, a few cracks are designed to voluntarily arise on the floors of the provider reservoirs. These tiny cracks are spread during the ground and are actually too minute to purpose any leakage or corrosion of the flooring. But the distinction also on this method is that the quantity of reinforcement used is a whole lot greater than the first technique.
Question 26. How Can You Distinguish Between Sorption, Absorption And Adsorption?
Sorption is a concomitant phenomenon of adsorption and absorption.
Adsorption describes the phenomenon in which molecules which might be present in a fluid (liquid or gasoline), concentrated spontaneously on a solid floor with the aid of a finite time.
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Question 27. What Is Modular Elasticity?
Young's modulus (E) describes tensile elasticity, or the tendency of an item to deform along an axis whilst opposing forces are implemented along that axis; it's far defined because the ratio of tensile stress to tensile stress. It is frequently mentioned really as the elastic modulus.
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Question 28. Discuss Some Applications Of Modular Elasticity?
As the term implies, "Modulus of Elasticity” pertains to the pliancy or "flexibility" of a material. The cost of modulus of elasticity may be very tons substantial relating to deflection of certain substances used inside the production industry. Take for instance the general E value of mild carbon steel is ready 200 GPA comPAred to about 70 GPA for aluminum. This absolutely translate that aluminum is three instances flexible than metallic.
Question 29. What Is Difference Between Engineering Stress And True Stress?
Think about pulling a bar in anxiety. Load divided through go-sectional region is force, or pressure. But what move section are you considering? Before beginning pull, the bar had a known pass-segment of (lets say) 0.Five" huge x metal thickness. It's clean to measure those, seeing that it's far your starting fabric. At any load, the engineering stress is the burden divided by using this initial go- location. While you are pulling, the length will increase, however the width and thickness decrease.
At any load, the true strain is the weight divided by the go-location at that instant. Unless thickness and width are being monitored continuously throughout the check, you can't calculate genuine pressure. It is, however, a miles higher illustration of ways the cloth behaves as it's far being deformed, and is the reason its use in forming simulations. In circle grid evaluation, engineering pressure is the % expansion of the circle as compared to the initial diameter of the circle. The relationships among engineering values and true values are:
σ = s (1+e) ε = ln (1+e)
Where "s" and "e" are the engineering strain and stress, respectively, and " " and " " are the proper strain and strain, respectively.
Question 30. What Is The Difference Between Routing Maintenance And Major Maintenance In School Facilities?
The ordinary protection is the minor and consistent rePAirs which can be engaged within the faculty premises. Examples ought to consist of PAinting, alternative of furnishings, louver blades, furnishings rePAirs, and PAtching cracks in the school buildings.
The foremost upkeep could also be a total rehabilitation of the college, either college buildings or some other mission inside the college community. It may be general restructuring of the lighting gadget inside the faculty or sanitary device.
Question 31. How Are Freeway Bridges Built?
After calculating the anticiPAted visitors for the bridge, cement/bolstered- with- rebar stanchions are sPAced over the throughway to deal with the bridge. An 'off-ramp' from the throughway to the bridge is built, as is an 'on-ramp' to the following road. Cement/rebar slabs are built and lifted with cranes to shape the platform, and voila! Drive cautiously.
Although the bridge deck/roadway is nearly always a concrete slab, the structure that holds up the bridge deck may be strengthened concrete, structural metallic, or a combination of metal and concrete.
Question 32. What Is Aggregate?
Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to face up to compressive stress.
Question 33. What Is The Meaning Of Soil Reinforcement?
Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil energy to enable it aid or bring more load.
Two commonplace examples are:
Mixing a soil change along with lime into susceptible clayey soil and re-comPActing to enhance soil-bearing caPAcity (regularly completed below the street base in motorway construction)
Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (known as geo-grid cloth) alternating with comPActed soil to provide a stronger sloped soil shape (regularly accomplished on steep roadway embankments to enhance power and balance)
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Question 34. What Is Braced Excavation All About?
Excavations are braced to save you the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil.
Question 35. What Is The Worlds Largest Concrete Dam?
The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the biggest concrete dam. Currently the arena's largest concrete dam is the Itaipu Dam, an accomplishment of neighboring international locations, Brazil and PAraguay in South America.
Though it isn't always completed yet, the Three Gorges (or Sandapong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the most important upon its of entirety, which is slated for 2009.
Question 36. What Are The Uses Of Alloys In Daily Life And How Are Alloys Made?
Alloying is not constantly executed to provide a 'advanced' cloth, but to provide materials having a preferred requirement in the industry or someplace else. A traditional case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), wherein the melting factor of the constituent elements are decreased, not necessarily a desirable belongings.
Alloying can be carried out the usage of warm press approach (a sheet of cloth is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metallic in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the bottom in a molten answer of alloying fabric) and so forth. Sometimes the alloying material is delivered in small proportions to the molten base metallic (e.G., in manufacturing of different sorts of metal).
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Question 37. What Is The Tallest Man Made Structure In The World?
The tallest man made shape is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 toes tall. The worlds tallest guy made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall.
Question 38. Which Is Stronger Solid Steel Rod Or Hollow Steel Pipe?
On a in step with pound foundation, metallic pipe is stronger in bending and is less probably to buckle in axial compression.
Question 39. How Do You Measure Concrete?
Cubic toes, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter.
Question 40. What Is The Difference Between Absorption & Adsorption And Sorption?
Absorption generally refers to two phenomena, that are largely unrelated. In one case, it refers to when atoms, molecules, or ions input some bulk segment - fuel, liquid or strong cloth. For instance, a sponge absorbs water while it's miles dry.
Absorption also refers to the procedure by which the power of a photon is taken up through another entity, as an example, through an atom whose valence electrons make transition among two electronic power tiers. The photon is destroyed in the technique. The absorbed strength may be re-emitted as radiant energy or transformed into warmness electricity. The absorption of light at some stage in wave proPAgation is frequently called attenuation. The tools of spectroscopy in chemistry are based at the absorption of photons via atoms and molecules.
Adsorption is comparable, however refers to a floor in place of a quantity: adsorption is a technique that occurs when a fuel or liquid solute accumulates at the surface of a solid or, more hardly ever, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorb-ate). It isn't the same as absorption, in which a substance diffuses right into a liquid or solid to shape an answer.
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