Question 1. What Is Dhcp?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that allows a server to robotically assign an IP address to a pc from a defined variety of numbers (i.E., a scope) configured for a given network.
Question 2. What Is The Dhcp Process For Client Machine?
A user activates a laptop with a DHCP purchaser.
The customer computer sends a printed request (known as a DISCOVER or DHCPDISCOVER), seeking out a DHCP server to answer.
The router directs the DISCOVER packet to the perfect DHCP server.
The server gets the DISCOVER packet. Based on availability and utilization guidelines set at the server, the server determines the appropriate deal with (if any) to provide to the client. The server then temporarily reserves that deal with for the consumer and sends again to the client an OFFER (or DHCPOFFER) packet, with that cope with facts. The server additionally configures the customer’s DNS servers, WINS servers, NTP servers, and once in a while other offerings as properly.
The patron sends a REQUEST (or DHCPREQUEST) packet, letting the server recognise that it intends to apply the cope with.
The server sends an ACK (or DHCPACK) packet, confirming that the purchaser has a been given a lease on the cope with for a server-special period of time.
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Question three. What Is Dhcp Scope?
DHCP scopes are used to outline ranges of addresses from which a DHCP server can assign IP addresses to clients.
Question 4. Types Of Scopes In Windows Dhcp?
Normal Scope – Allows A, B and C Class IP cope with degrees to be specific including subnet mask, exclusions and reservations. Each everyday scope defined must exist within its own subnet.
Multicast Scope – Used to assign IP deal with degrees for Class D networks. Multicast scopes do not have subnet mask, reservation or other TCP/IP alternatives.
Multicast scope address ranges require that a Time To Live (TTL) fee be targeted (essentially the number of routers a packet can skip via at the manner to its destination).
Superscope – Essentially a collection of scopes grouped together such that they can be enabled and disabled as a single entity.
Question five. What Is Authorizing Dhcp Servers In Active Directory?
If a DHCP server is to function within an Active Directory area (and isn't always walking on a website controller) it ought to first be legal.
This may be done either as part of the DHCP Server position installation, or finally using either DHCP console or on the command spark off using the netsh device.
If the DHCP server became now not authorized all through set up, invoke the DHCP console (Start -> All Programs -> Administrative Tools -> DHCP),
right click at the DHCP to be legal and select Authorize.
To achieve the equal end result from the command prompt, input the subsequent command:
netsh dhcp server serverID provoke auth
In the above command syntax, serverID is changed through the IP address or complete UNC name of device on which the DHCP server is established.
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Question 6. What Ports Are Used By Dhcp And The Dhcp Clients?
Requests are on UDP port 68, Server replies on UDP 67 .
Question 7. List Some Benefits Of Using Dhcp?
DHCP offers the following advantages for administering your TCP/IP-primarily based community:
Safe and dependable configuration.DHCP avoids configuration mistakes as a result of the want to manually kind in values at each laptop. Also, DHCP facilitates save you address conflicts as a result of a previously assigned IP cope with being reused to configure a new laptop at the network.
Reduces configuration control.
Using DHCP servers can significantly decrease time spent to configuring and reconfiguring computers for your network. Servers may be configured to deliver a complete range of additional configuration values while assigning deal with rentals.
These values are assigned the use of DHCP alternatives. Also, the DHCP lease renewal manner enables guarantee that where consumer configurations want to be updated often (which include users with cell or portable computer systems who change places often), those adjustments can be made effectively and routinely with the aid of clients communicating immediately with DHCP servers.
The following segment covers troubles that have an effect on the usage of the DHCP Server service with other services or network configurations. Using DNS servers with DHCP Using Routing and Remote Access servers with DHCP Multihomed DHCP servers.
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Question eight. Describe The Process Of Installing A Dhcp Server In An Ad Infrastructure?
Open Windows Components Wizard. Under Components , scroll to and click Networking Services. Click Details . Under Subcomponents of Networking Services , click on Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) after which click OK.
Click Next . If prompted, type the whole course to the Windows Server 2003 distribution documents, after which click on Next. Required files are copied in your tough disk.
Question 9. How To Authorize A Dhcp Server In Active Directory Open Dhcp?
In the console tree, click DHCP
On the Action menu, click on Manage authorized servers.
The Manage Authorized Servers conversation container appears. Click Authorize.
When triggered, kind the name or IP address of the DHCP server to be legal, after which click OK.
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Question 10. What Is Dhcpinform?
DHCPInform is a DHCP message utilized by DHCP customers to obtain DHCP options. While PPP remote get right of entry to clients do not use DHCP to gain IP addresses for the faraway get entry to connection, Windows 2000 and Windows ninety eight faraway get right of entry to clients use the DHCPInform message to obtain DNS server IP addresses, WINS server IP addresses, and a DNS domain name.
The DHCPInform message is despatched after the IPCP negotiation is concluded. The DHCPInform message received through the far flung get admission to server is then forwarded to a DHCP server. The remote get admission to server forwards DHCPInform messages most effective if it has been configured with the DHCP Relay Agent.
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Question 11. Describe The Integration Between Dhcp And Dns?
Traditionally, DNS and DHCP servers have been configured and managed separately. Similarly, converting authorization rights for a particular person on a set of devices has intended journeying each one and making configuration modifications.
DHCP integration with DNS allows the aggregation of these obligations throughout devices, enabling a organization’s network services to scale in step with the increase of network users, devices, and policies, even as decreasing administrative operations and prices. This integration affords practical operational efficiencies that decrease total value of ownership.
Creating a DHCP community mechanically creates an associated DNS zone, as an instance, reducing the wide variety of duties required of community administrators. And integration of DNS and DHCP in the same database instance provides unequalled consistency between provider and management views of IP cope with-centric community offerings statistics.
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Question 12. What Protocol And Port Does Dhcp Use?
DHCP, like BOOTP runs over UDP, using ports 67 and sixty eight.
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Question thirteen. Can A Dhcp Server Back Up Another Dhcp Server?
You can have or greater servers handing out leases for special addresses. If each has a dynamic pool available to the identical customers, then even supposing one server is down, one of those clients can rent an cope with from the opposite server. However, with out conversation among the two servers to proportion their information on modern-day rentals, whilst one server is down, any client with a rent from it'll not be able to renew their hire with the alternative server.
Such conversation is the cause of the “server to server protocol”. It is feasible that a few server companies have addressed this trouble with their personal proprietary server-to-server conversation.
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Question 14. What Is A Mac Address?
A MAC cope with (additionally called an Ethernet deal with or an IEEE MAC address) is more than a few (commonly written as twelve hexadecimal digits, zero through nine and A through F, or as six hexadecimal numbers separated by way of intervals or colons, i.E. 0080002012ef, zero:eighty:zero:2:20:ef) which uniquely identifes a pc that has an Ethernet interface.
Unlike the IP range, it includes no indication of wherein your pc is placed. In DHCP’s standard use, the server uses a requesting laptop’s MAC deal with to uniquely perceive it.
Question 15. Can Dhcp Support Statically Defined Addresses?
Yes. At least there's nothing inside the protocol to prevent this and one expects it to be a feature of any DHCP server. This is surely a server depend and the customer have to work both way. The RFC refers to this as guide allocation.
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Question sixteen. Is A Dhcp Server “meant To” Be Able To Support A Bootp Client?
The RFC on such interoperability (1534) is apparent: “In summary, a DHCP server:
MAY assist BOOTP customers,” (phase 2). The phrase “MAY” suggests such aid, but useful, is left as an choice. A source of misunderstanding in this factor is the subsequent declaration in phase 1.Five of RFC 1541: “DHCP should offer provider to existing BOOTP customers.”
However, this statement is one in a listing of “trendy layout desires for DHCP”, i.E. What the designers of the DHCP protocol set as their personal desires. It isn't always in a list of requirements for DHCP servers.
Question 17. How Can I Relay Dhcp If My Router Does Not Support It?
A server on a internet(subnet) can relay DHCP or BOOTP for that net. Microsoft has software program to make Windows NT try this.
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Question 18. What Is A Client Id?
What is termed the Client ID for the purposes of the DHCP protocol is anything is used by the protocol to identify the purchaser pc. By default, DHCP implementations typically rent the purchaser’s MAC cope with for this cause, however the DHCP protocol allows other options. Some DHCP implementations have a setup option to specify the patron ID you need. One alternative to the MAC deal with is truely a individual string of your desire.
In any case, so as for DHCP to feature, you have to be positive that no different purchaser is the use of the patron ID you select, and also you need to make certain the DHCP server will accept it.
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Question 19. Is A Dhcp Client “supposed To” Be Able To Use A Bootp Server?
The RFC on such interoperability (1534) is apparent: “A DHCP patron MAY use a respond from a BOOTP server if the configuration lower back from the BOOTP server is acceptable to the DHCP consumer.”. The word “MAY” indicates such assist, but beneficial, is left as an option.
Question 20. How Long Should A Lease Be?
A very applicable aspect is that the consumer begins seeking to renew the rent whilst it is halfway via: thus, as an instance, with a four day lease, the client which has misplaced get right of entry to to its DHCP server has 2 days from while it first tries to renew the lease till the hire expires and the purchaser must forestall using the network.
During a 2- day outage, new users cannot get new leases, but no rent will expire for any pc grew to become on at the time that the outage commences. Another aspect is that the longer the lease the longer time it takes for customer configuration changes managed by way of DHCP to propogate.
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Question 21. What Is Dhcp Spoofing?
Ascend Pipeline ISDN routers (which connect Ethernets to ISDN lines) contain a feature that Ascend calls “DHCP spoofing” which is basically a tiny server implementation that fingers an IP deal with to a connecting Windows ninety five laptop, with the intention of giving it an IP variety all through its connection method.
Question 22. What Is A Dhcp Lease?
A DHCP hire is the quantity of time that the DHCP server grants to the DHCP customer permission to use a specific IP address. A common server allows its administrator to set the rent time.
Question 23. Can Dhcp Work With Apple Talk Or Ipx?
No, it's far too tied to IP. Furthermore, they don’t want it for the reason that they've constantly had computerized mechanisms for assigning their personal network addresses.
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Question 24. Can A Bootp Client Boot From A Dhcp Server?
Only if the DHCP server is especially written to also cope with BOOTP queries.
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Question 25. How Can I Prevent Unauthorized Laptops From Using A Network That Uses Dhcp For Dynamic Addressing?
This might need to be completed using a mechanism other than DHCP. DHCP does no longer prevent different clients from using the addresses it is set to hand out nor can it distinguish among a pc’s permanent MAC deal with and one set through the computer’s consumer. DHCP can impose no regulations on what IP cope with can use a specific port nor manage the IP deal with used by any customer.
Question 26. Can Dhcp Support Remote Access?
PPP has its very own non-DHCP way wherein communications servers can hand clients an IP cope with called IPCP (IP Control Protocol) however doesn’t have the equal flexibility as DHCP or BOOTP in handing out different parameters. Such a communications server may additionally assist the use of DHCP to accumulate the IP addresses it gives out.
This is every so often known as doing DHCP via proxy for the consumer. I recognise that Windows NT’s far flung access guide does this. A function of DHCP beneath development (DHCPinform) is a technique via which a DHCP server can deliver parameters to a purchaser that already has an IP quantity. With this, a PPP purchaser should get its IP number the usage of IPCP, then get the relaxation of its parameters the use of this feature of DHCP. SLIP has no wellknown way wherein a server can hand a consumer an IP deal with, but many communications servers guide non-fashionable approaches of doing this that can be used by scripts, etc.
Thus, like communications servers helping PPP, such communications servers could also support the usage of DHCP to accumulate the IP addressees to offer out. The DHCP protocol is able to allocating an IP address to a tool without an IEEE-style MAC address, consisting of a laptop connected thru SLIP or PPP, however to achieve this, it makes use of a function which might also or may not be supported through the DHCP server: the ability of the server to use something aside from the MAC deal with to perceive the client. Communications servers that acquire IP numbers for their customers through DHCP run into the equal roadblock in that they've just one MAC address, but want to acquire more than one IP address.
One manner this type of communications server can get around this hassle is through the use of a hard and fast of specific pseudo-MAC addresses for the purposes of its communications with the DHCP server. Another way (utilized by Shiva) is to apply a distinct “client ID type” to your hardware deal with. Client ID kind 1 way you’re the use of MAC addresses. However, customer ID kind zero means an ASCII string.
Question 27. What Is Dhcp’s Purpose?
DHCP’s motive is to permit character computer systems on an IP network to extract their configurations from a server (the ‘DHCP server’) or servers, specifically, servers that have no genuine information approximately the character computers until they request the statistics. The overall motive of this is to lessen the work important to manage a big IP community. The maximum sizeable piece of statistics dispensed on this manner is the IP cope with.
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Question 28. What Is Dora In Dhcp?
DORA – Discover, Offer , Request , Acknowledgement.
DORA approach DHCP server Lease system quick-form.
Question 29. What Are The Switches Are Used With Ipconfig?
IPCONFIG/ all, Release/ Renew/ FLUSHDNS
Question 30. Where We Can Change The Default Dhcp Database Interval Time?
We can change the default interval time for DHCP database by means of editing the Registry value BackupInterval within the following vicinity in registry
Question 31. Dhcp Automatic Backup Default Interval Time?
The c program languageperiod time turned into 60 minutes.
Question 32. What Is Dhcp Database File Extension?
DHCP database document extension is .Mdb
Question 33. Dhcp Database Storage Default Location?
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Question 34. What Is Bootp?
BOOTP (bootstrap protocol) is a bunch configuration protocol. It is developed before DHCP.
Question 35. What Is Dhcpnak Message?
If the Server is not able to satisfy the DHCPREQUEST message (The asked network address has been allotted) the Server Should despatched DHCPNAK message to patron. It can also be Sent if consumer's belief of community address is incorrect (Client has moved to new subnet) or purchaser's hire expired.
Question 36. What Is The Purpose Of Relay Agent?
A DHCP relay agent is any host that forwards DHCP packets between clients and servers if server isn't at the equal physical subnet. Relay dealers are used to forward requests and replies between customers and servers when they may be not on the identical physical subnet.DHCP relay agent may be configured the use of the ip helper-address command.
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Question 37. What Is The Reason For Getting Apipa Address?
With APIPA, DHCP customers can robotically self-configure an IP deal with and subnetmask whilst a DHCP server isn't always to be had. When DHCP consumer boots up, it first seems for a DHCP server to be able to acquire an IP address and subnet mask.A customer makes use of the self-configured IP cope with till a DHCP server turns into to be had. The APIPA provider additionally exams frequently for the presence of a DHCP server. If it detects a DHCP server at the network, APIPA stops and the DHCP server replaces the APIPA networking addresses with dynamically assigned addresses.
Question 38. What Is The Range Of Apipa Address?
The IP deal with variety is 169.254.0.1 thru 169.254.255.254. The client additionally configures itself with a default Class B subnet masks of 255.255.Zero.Zero.
Question 39. What Is Dhcp Decline Message?
It is Sent by using Client to server indicating network address is already in use (already assigned to another device).
Question 40. How Dhcp Works?
DHCP works on DORA Process (DISCOVER - OFFER - REQUEST - ACKNOWLEDGEMENT).
When a Client needs an IP configuration, it tries to locate a DHCP server through sending a printed referred to as a DHCP DISCOVER. This message can have a Destination IP of 255.255.255.255 and Destination MAC of ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.[Source IP - 0.0.0.0 , Destination IP - 255.255.255.255, Source Mac - Mac address of Host, Destination Mac -FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF]
On Receiving DHCP Discover, Server sends a DHCP OFFER message to the patron. The DHCPOFFER is a proposed configuration that can encompass IP cope with, DNS server deal with, and rent time. This message might be unicast and have the vacation spot mac deal with of DHCP purchaser's mac cope with. The source mac deal with might be that of the DHCP server.[S.Mac - Mac address of Server , D.Mac - Mac address of Host]
If the Client finds the Offer agreeable, it sends DHCP REQUEST Message requesting those unique IP parameters. This message can be a Broadcast message. [Source Mac - Mac address of Host, Destination Mac - FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF]
The Server on receiving the DHCP REQUEST makes the configuration official with the aid of sending a unicast DHCP ACK acknowledgment.
[Source Mac - Mac address of Server, Destination Mac - Mac address of Host]
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Question 41. What Information A Dhcp Server Can Provide To A Host?
DHCP server can provide following facts:
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Question forty two. Who Created Dhcp? How Was It Created?
DHCP was created by using the Dynamic Host Configuration Working Group of theInternet Engineering Task Force (IETF; a volunteer organisation which definesprotocols for use on the Internet). As such, it's definition is recorded in anInternet RFC and the Internet Activities Board (IAB) is affirming its fame as toInternet Standardization.
As of this writing (June 1998), DHCP is an Internet Draft Standard Protocol and is Elective. BOOTP is an Internet Draft StandardProtocol and is usually recommended. For more statistics on Internet standardization,see RFC2300 (May 1998).
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Question forty three. How Is It Different Than Bootp Or Rarp?
DHCP is based totally on BOOTP and keeps some backward compatibility. The maindifference is that BOOTP changed into designed for manual pre-configuration of the hostinformation in a server database, whilst DHCP allows for dynamic allocation of community addresses and configurations to newly connected hosts. Additionally,DHCP permits for restoration and reallocation of community addresses thru aleasing mechanism.
RARP is a protocol used by Sun and other vendors that permits a computer to findout its personal IP wide variety, that's one of the protocol parameters typically passedto the client machine by way of DHCP or BOOTP. RARP would not support different parametersand the usage of it, a server can most effective serve a single LAN. DHCP and BOOTP aredesigned in order that they may be routed.
Question forty four. Can Dhcp Work With Appletalk Or Ipx?
No, it's far too tied to IP. Furthermore, they don't want it on account that they have alwayshad automatic mechanisms for assigning their own network addresses.
Question forty five. How Does Dhcp And Bootp Handle Multiple Subnets?
For the situations where there may be multiple LAN, every with its own subnet quantity, there are ways. First of all, you could set up a seperate server oneach subnet. Secondly, a feature of a few routers called "BOOTP forwarding"to forward DHCP or BOOTP requests to a server on another subnet and toforward the replies returned to the purchaser.
The a part of such a router (or server actingas a router) that does that is known as a "BOOTP forwarding agent". Typically youhave to permit it at the interface to the subnet to be served and feature toconfigure it with the IP cope with of the DHCP or BOOTP server. On a Cisco router,the cope with is called the "UDP Helper Address".
Question forty six. Can A Dhcp Client Boot From A Bootp Server?
Only if the DHCP client have been in particular written to make use of the solution froma BOOTP server. It might presumably treat a BOOTP respond as an never-ending leaseon the IP address.In specific, the TCP/IP stack blanketed with Windows ninety five
Question 47. How Can I Prevent Unauthorized Laptops From Using A Network That Usesdhcp For Dynamic Addressing?
This might should be completed the use of a mechanism other than DHCP. DHCP does notprevent other clients from using the addresses it's miles set at hand out nor can itdistinguish between a computer's everlasting MAC address and one set with the aid of thecomputer's user. DHCP can impose no regulations on what IP address can use aparticular port nor manipulate the IP address used by any client.
Question 48. When Will The Server To Server Protocol Be Defined?
The DHC WG of the IETF is actively investigating the issues in inter-servercommunication. The protocol have to be defined "quickly"
Question 49. Where Is Dhcp Defined?
In Internet RFCs.
Question 50. Can A Dhcp Client Or Server Make A Dns Server Update The Client's Dnsentry To Match The Client's Dynamically Assigned Address?
RFCs 2136 and 2137 indicate a manner wherein DNS entries can be updateddynamically. Using this calls for a DNS server that helps this feature and aDHCP server that uses it. The RFCs are very recent (as of 5/ninety seven) andimplementations are few. In the imply time, there are DNS and DHCP serversthat accomplish this through proprietary method.