Question 1. Define Image?

Answer :

An Image can be defined as a dimensional feature f (x,y) where x & y are spatial (plane) coordinates, and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x,y) is referred to as depth or grey level of the photo at that point. When x,y and the amplitude values of f are all finite, discrete portions we call the photo as Digital Image.

Question 2. Define Image Sampling?

Answer :

Digitization of spatial coordinates (x,y) is known as Image Sampling. To be appropriate for computer processing, an photograph characteristic f(x,y) should be digitized both spatially and in importance.

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Question 3. Define Quantization ?

Answer :

Digitizing the amplitude values is referred to as Quantization. Quality of digital image is determined to a massive diploma through the number of samples and discrete grey ranges used in sampling and quantization.

Question 4. What Is Dynamic Range?

Answer :

The variety of values spanned via the gray scale is called dynamic variety of an photo. Image can have high comparison, if the dynamic variety is excessive and photo can have stupid washed out gray look if the dynamic range is low.

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Question five. Define Mach Band Effect?

Answer :

The spatial interplay of Luminance from an object and its surround creates a Phenomenon called the mach band impact.

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Question 6. Define Brightness?

Answer :

Brightness of an object is the perceived luminance of the surround. Two objects with distinct environment could have same luminance but one of a kind brightness.

Question 7. Define Tapered Quantization?

Answer :

If grey stages in a sure variety arise frequently while others occurs not often, the quantization ranges are finely spaced in this range and coarsely spaced outdoor of it.This method is every so often referred to as Tapered Quantization.

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Question 8. What Do You Meant By Gray Level?

Answer :

Gray stage refers to a scalar measure of intensity that degrees from black to grays and in the end to white.

Question nine. Define Resolutions?

Answer :

Resolution is defined because the smallest range of discernible detail in an picture. Spatial decision is the smallest discernible detail in an photograph and grey degree resolution refers to the smallest discernible exchange is gray level.

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Question 10. Write The M X N Digital Image In Compact Matrix Form?

Answer :

f(x,y )= f(zero,zero) f(zero,1)………………f(0,N-1)

f(1,0) f(1,1)………………f(1,N-1)

.

.

.

F(M-1) f(M-1,1)…………f(M-1,N-1)

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Question eleven. Write The Expression To Find The Number Of Bits To Store A Digital Image?

Answer :

The variety of bits required to shop a virtual photo is

b=M X N X okay

When M=N, this equation will become

b=N^2k

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Question 12. What Do You Meant By Zooming Of Digital Images?

Answer :

Zooming can be regarded as over sampling. It involves the introduction of new pixel places and the venture of grey stages to those new places.

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Question thirteen. What Do You Meant By Shrinking Of Digital Images?

Answer :

Shrinking may be considered as under sampling. To decrease an image through one half, we delete each row and column. To lessen possible aliasing effect, it is a superb idea to blue an picture barely before shrinking it.

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Question 14. Define The Term Radiance?

Answer :

Radiance is the overall quantity of electricity that flows from the light source, and additionally it is measured in watts (w).

Question 15. Define The Term Luminance?

Answer :

Luminance measured in lumens (lm), gives a measure of the quantity of power an observer perceiver from a mild supply.

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Question sixteen. What Is Image Transform?

Answer :

An photo can be increased in terms of a discrete set of foundation arrays known as foundation photos. Unitary matrices can generate those foundation photos. Alternatively, a given NXN photograph may be regarded as an N^2X1 vectors. An photograph remodel affords a hard and fast of coordinates or foundation vectors for vector area.

Question 17. What Are The Applications Of Transform?

Answer :

To reduce band width

To reduce redundancy

To extract characteristic.

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Question 18. Give The Conditions For Perfect Transform?

Answer :

Transpose of matrix = Inverse of a matrix. Orthoganality.

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Question 19. What Are The Properties Of Unitary Transform?

Answer :

Determinant and the Eigen values of a unitary matrix have harmony importance

The entropy of a random vector is preserved below a unitary Transformation

Since the entropy is a measure of common information, this indicates information is preserved underneath a unitary transformation.

Question 20. Write The Expression Of One-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transforms?

Answer :

Forward remodel

The series of x(n) is given via x(n) = x0,x1,x2,… xN-1.

X(k) = (n=0 to N-1) _ x(n) exp(-j 2* pi* nk/N) ; ok= 0,1,2,…N-1

Reverse transforms

X(n) = (1/N) (ok=zero to N-1) _ x(k) exp(-j 2* pi* nk/N) ; n= zero,1,2,…N-1

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Question 21. Properties Of Twiddle Factor?

Answer :

1. Periodicity

WN^(K+N)= WN^K

2. Symmetry

WN^(K+N/2)= -WN^K

Question 22. Give The Properties Of One-dimensional Dft?

Answer :

The DFT and unitary DFT matrices are symmetric.

The extensions of the DFT and unitary DFT of a chain and their inverse transforms are periodic with duration N.

The DFT or unitary DFT of a real collection is conjugate symmetric approximately N/2.

Question 23. Give The Properties Of Two-dimensional Dft?

Answer :

Symmetric

Periodic extensions

Sampled Fourier rework

Conjugate symmetry.

Question 24. What Is Cosine Transform?

Answer :

The NXN cosine rework c(okay) is referred to as the discrete cosine remodel and is described as

C(ok) = 1/_N , okay=zero, zero _ n _ N-1 = _ (2/N) cos (pi (2n+1)/2N 1_ okay _ N-1, 0_ n _ N-1

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Question 25. Write The Properties Of Cosine Transform?

Answer :

Real & orthogonal.

Fast rework.

Has top notch electricity compaction for especially correlated information

Question 26. Write The Properties Of Sine Transform?

Answer :

Real, symmetric and orthogonal.

Not the imaginary part of the unitary DFT.

Fast remodel.

Question 27. Write The Properties Of Hadamard Transform?

Answer :

Hadamard rework consists of any individual cost.

No multiplications are required within the transform calculations.

The no: of additives or subtractions required may be decreased from N^2 to Nlog2N

Very correct energy compaction for tremendously correlated pix.

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Question 28. Define Haar Transform?

Answer :

The Haar capabilities are described on a continuous c program languageperiod Xe [0,1] and for K=0,1,……. N-1.Where N=2^n. The integer ok may be uniquely decomposed as K=2^P+Q-1.

Question 29. Write The Expression For Hadamard Transforms?

Answer :

Hadamard rework matrices Hn are NXN matrices wherein N=2^n , n= 1,2,3,… is described as Hn= Hn-1 * H1 = H1* Hn-1

= 1/ _ 2 Hn-1 Hn-1

H2 = 1 1

1 –1

Question 30. What Are The Properties Of Haar Transform?

Answer :

Haar rework is real and orthogonal.

Haar transform is a totally rapid remodel

Haar transform has very terrible energy compaction for pix

The simple vectors of Haar matrix sequency ordered.

Question 31. What Are The Properties Of Slant Transform?

Answer :

Slant transform is actual and orthogonal.

Slant rework is a fast rework

Slant rework has very good power compaction for pics

The basic vectors of Slant matrix are not sequency ordered.

Question 32. Define Of Kl Transform?

Answer :

KL Transform is an top of the line in the feel that it minimizes the imply rectangular errors between the vectors X and their approximations X^. Due to this concept of the use of the Eigenvectors similar to largest Eigen values. It is likewise referred to as most important thing rework.

Question 33. Justify That Klt Is An Optimal Transform?

Answer :

Since imply rectangular error of reconstructed image and authentic photo is minimum and the suggest cost of converted image is zero in order that uncorrelated.

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Question 34. Explain The Term Digital Image?

Answer :

The virtual photo is an array of real or complex numbers this is represented by a finite no of bits.

Question 35. Write Any Four Applications Of Dip?

Answer :

Remote sensing

Image transmission and garage for commercial enterprise application

Medical imaging

Astronomy

Question 36. What Is The Effect Of Mach Band Pattern?

Answer :

The intensity or the brightness pattern understand a darker stribe in place D and brighter stribe in area B.This impact is called Mach band sample or impact.

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Question 37. Write Down The Properties Of 2nd Fourier Transform?

Answer :

Separability

Translation

Periodicity and Conjugate belongings

Rotation

Distributivity and scaling

Average value

Convolution and Correlation

Laplacian

Question 38. Obtain The Hadamard Transformation For N = four?

Answer :

N = four = 2n

=> n = 2

Question 39. Write Down The Properties Of Haar Transform?

Answer :

Real and orthogonal

Very speedy rework

Basis vectors are sequentially ordered

Has truthful energy compaction for photo

Useful in characteristic extraction,photo coding and picture evaluation trouble

Question 40. What Is Image Enhancement?

Answer :

Image enhancement is to system an image so that the output is extra appropriate for specific application.

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Question 41. Name The Categories Of Image Enhancement And Explain?

Answer :

The classes of Image Enhancement are

Spatial domain

Frequency area Spatial area: It refers back to the photograph plane, itself and it's miles based totally on direct manipulation of pixels of an photograph.

Frequency area techniques are based totally on editing the Fourier remodel of an photo.

Question 42. What Do You Mean By Point Processing?

Answer :

Image enhancement at any Point in an photo depends most effective on the grey degree at that factor is regularly known as Point processing.

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Question 43. Explain Mask Or Kernels?

Answer :

A Mask is a small -dimensional array, in which the cost of the masks coefficient determines the character of the technique, such as photo sharpening.

Question forty four. What Is Image Negatives?

Answer :

The terrible of an picture with grey levels inside the range [0, L-1] is obtained by the use of the terrible transformation, which is given by the expression.

S = L-1-r

Where s is output pixel.

R is enter pixel.

Question forty five. Define Histogram?

Answer :

The histogram of a virtual picture with gray degrees in the variety [0, L-1] is a discrete characteristic h (rk) = nk, where rk is the kth gray stage and nk is the number of pixels in the photo having gray stage rk.

Question forty six. Define Derivative Filter?

Answer :

For a function f (x, y), the gradient f at co-ordinate (x, y) is defined because the

vector_f = _f/_x

_f/_y

_f = magazine (_f) = [(_f/_x) 2 +(_f/_y) 2 ] ½

Question 47. Explain Spatial Filtering?

Answer :

Spatial filtering is the system of shifting the filter out mask from factor to point in an photo. For linear spatial filter, the reaction is given by using a sum of merchandise of the filter out coefficients, and the corresponding photo pixels within the region spanned via the filter out mask.

Question 48. Define Averaging Filters?

Answer :

The output of a smoothing, linear spatial filter out is the average of the pixels include inside the community of the filter masks. These filters are referred to as averaging filters.

Question 49. What Is A Median Filter?

Answer :

The median filter replaces the fee of a pixel with the aid of the median of the gray degrees within the neighborhood of that pixel.

Question 50. What Is Maximum Filter And Minimum Filter?

Answer :

The one centesimal percentile is most filter is utilized in locating brightest points in an image. The 0th percentile filter is minimal filter out used for locating darkest points in an photograph.