Question 1. Explain About Harbours?
Harbours: A harbour can be described as a sheltered region of the ocean wherein vessels can be launched, built or taken for repair; or ought to seek safe haven in time of storm; or provide for loading and unloading of shipment and passengers.Harbours are broadly categorised as:
Question 2. Explain About Natural Harbours?
Natural formations affording secure discharge facilities for ships on sea coasts, within the form of creeks and basins, are known as herbal harbours. With the fast development of navies engaged either in commerce or war,progressed accommodation and facilities for upkeep, garage of cargo and linked facilities had to be provided in herbal harbours.
The size and draft of modern vessels have necessitated the works improvement for natural harbours.
The elements inclusive of neighborhood geographical features, increase of population, improvement of the place, and many others. Have made the natural harbours big and appealing. Bombay and Kandla are, examples of herbal harbours
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Question 3. Explain About Semi-herbal Harbours?
Semi-natural harbours: This type of harbour is protected on aspects with the aid of headlands safety and it requires guy-made safety simplest at the entrance. Vishakhapatnam is a semi-natural harbour.
Question four. Explain Artificial Harbours?
Where such herbal facilities aren't to be had, nations having a seaboard had to create or construct such shelters utilizing engineering skill and methods, and such harbours are referred to as artificial or man-made harbours.
Madras is an synthetic harbour.
Thus, a naval vessel ought to reap shelter for the duration of bad weather inside a tract or region of water close to the shore, supplying a good maintain for anchoring, blanketed through herbal or artificial harbour walls against the fury of storms.
Question 5. What Is Natural Roadsteads And Artificial Roadsteads?
Natural roadsteads: A deep navigable channel with a defensive herbal bank or shoal to seaward is a good instance of a herbal roadstead. A confined vicinity certainly enclosed by means of islands as in a creek if to be had is called a circumscribed herbal roadstead.
Artificial roadsteads: These may be created suitably via building a breakwater or wall parallel to the coast or curvilinear from the coast
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Question 6. What Is The Accessibility And Size Of Harbours?
Accessibility and length of harbours :
Accessibility relies upon at the region of the harbours.
The harbour entrance ought to be designed and positioned for brief smooth negotiation via ships, overtaken by means of storms.
At the equal time, it ought to be slim enough now not to reveal the harbour to the effects of the stormy sea.
Maximum dimensions upto 180 were followed
The front is usually placed of the ocean, with a passage to the interior of the harbour so organized as to minimize the effect of difficult seas.
Thus; the dimensions is decided by using:
Convenience for maneuvering and navigation.
Adaptability to natural functions.
Question 7. How Do We Do Site Selection For A Harbour?
The guiding elements which play a brilliant position in choice of web site for a harbour are as follows :
Availability of cheap land and construction substances.
Transport and verbal exchange centers.
Natural protection from winds and waves.
Industrial improvement of the locality.
Sea-bed subsoil and foundation situations.
Traffic potentiality of harbour.
Availability of electrical electricity and clean water.
Favorable marine conditions.
Defence and strategic components.
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Question 8. Explain How The Shape Of A Harbour Should Be?
The following ideas must be kept in mind:
In order to protect the harbour from the ocean waves, one of the pier heads have to project a touch past the opposite.
Inside the pier heads, the width ought to widen very unexpectedly.
The fashionable shape of the harbours ought to be received via a sequence of straight lengths and no re-entrant angle need to be allowed.
Question 9. Explain About Harbour Planning?
It is vital to carry out a thorough survey of the neighbourhood including the foreshore and the depths of water within the region
The borings on land ought to also be made on the way to recognise the probably subsurface conditions on land. It might be useful in locating the harbour works effectively.
The nature of the harbour, whether or not sheltered or no longer, ought to be studied.
The lifestyles of sea insect undermine the rules ought to be cited.
The trouble of silting or erosion of shoreline have to be cautiously studied.
The natural metrological phenomenoa must be studied at website online particularly with respect to frequency of storms, rainfall, variety of tides, most and, minimum temperature and of winds, humidity, direction and velocity of currents, and so forth.
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Question 10. Explain About Ports And Classification Of Ports?
Ports: The time period port is used to signify a harbour in which terminal centers, this sort of stores, landing of passengers and load, and so forth. Are delivered to it. Thus, a harbour consists of the waterways and channels as a long way because the pier head strains and a port consists of the whole lot on the landward facet of these strains i.E. Piers, slips, wharves, sheds, tracks, handling equipment, and so forth.
Classification of ports: Depending upon the location, the ports may be labeled as;
Question 11. Explain The Requirement For Port Design?
Port layout: The layout of a port should be made whilst preserving in mind the following necessities:
The entrance channel must be such that the ships can come in and exit easily.
The ships ought to be able to turn within the basin itself.
The alignment of quays need to be such that the ships can come alongside aspect effortlessly even if there's an on-shore wind.
The width behind the quay have to be enough to address the goods.
There must be sufficient provision for railway tracks to take care for loading and unloading of shipment.
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Question 12. What Are The Requirements For Good Port Design?
It have to be centrally situated for the hinterland. For a port, the hinterland is that part of the u . S . Behind it which may be served with economic system and efficiency with the aid of the port.
It need to get appropriate tonnage i .E. Rate in line with tonne of shipment dealt with by using it.
It have to have true conversation with the relaxation of u . S ..
It must be populous
It ought to be enhance in way of life, exchange and enterprise.
It must be an area of defence and for resisting the ocean-borne invasion
It have to command valuable and substantial alternate.
It should be able to clean, easy and monetary development.
It must afford refuge to all ships and in any respect seasons of the years
It should provide the maximum facilities to all the visiting ships including the servicing of ships.
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Question 13. Explain About Tides And Waves?
Tides: Tides at the coast-line are because of the solar and moon. The impact of tides is to artificially improve and lower the imply sea stage in the course of positive said intervals. This apparent variant of imply sea stage is known as the tidal variety.
Spring tides and Neap tides: At new and full moon or as a substitute a day or after (or two times in every lunar month), the tides upward thrust better and fall lower than at different times and these are known as Spring tides. Also one or two days after the moon is in her region i.E. Approximately seven days from new and complete moons (two times in a lunar month), the tides upward push and fall less than at different instances and are then known as neap tides.
Waves and wind: The ‘sea wave’ is via a long way the maximum powerful pressure acting on harbour barriers and against which the engineer has to contend. The wave has the impulse of a huge battering ram and ready with the factor of a select axe and chisel aspect”. It is the maximum in compressible herbal phenomena. The formation of hurricane waves takes vicinity in the open sea due to the movement of wind.
Water waves are of sorts:
Waves of oscillation
Waves of translation;
The former are desk bound, while the latter own forward movement. But all translatory waves at first start as waves of oscillation and, end up translatory by means of similarly wind motion. The harbour engineer’s principal concern is the translatory wave.
Question 14. What Is Breakwater And Explain Its Alignment?
Breakwaters: The shielding barrier constructed to surround harbours and to preserve the harbour waters undisturbed with the aid of the impact of heavy and strong seas are known as breakwaters.
Alignment: A exact alignment for a breakwater is to have directly converging fingers so that the perspective of inter phase does now not exceed 60 stages. It is suitable to avoid straight parallel or diverging hands strolling out to sea.
Question 15. Explain The Design Of Breakwaters?
Design of breakwaters:
Following statistics should he amassed before the design of a breakwater:
Character of coastal currents
Cost and availability of materials of creation
Directions and pressure of winning winds
Nature of the lowest or foundation
Probable maximum top, force and depth of waves. !
The 3 vital rules to be located inside the design of a breakwater are as under:
The layout must be based totally on the extreme phenomena of the wind and waves, and now not on the imply or the common.
The top of the wave ought to he decided by means of Using the equation H = 034¥Fand the height of wall ought to be decided for that reason with the aid of making sufficient allowance for freeboard.
It have to be visible that the cloth in the foundation isn't subject to scour.
Question sixteen. Explain The Detrimental Forces Acting On Breakwaters?
Detrimental forces appearing on breakwaters:
This force reduces the apparent weight and subsequently, the marine systems go through these losses to a remarkable volume until the rules are truely impervious.
The intensity of external forces, particularly wind and wave movement, is considerable.
The electricity of wind produces vibrations within the masonry structure and weakens the specific courses of masonry.
In a similar way, the wave while it recedes induces ‘suction motion and it consequences within the erosion of the muse until it's miles made secure and comfy.
Question 17. Explain The Classification Of Breakwaters?
Breakwaters are categorised specially into three kinds:
Heap or mound breakwater.
Mound with superstructure.
Upright wall breakwater.
Question 18. Explain Heap Or Mound Breakwater?
Heap or mound breakwater :
It is a heterogeneous assemblage of herbal rubble, undressed stone blocks, rip rap, supplemented in lots of cases with the aid of synthetic blocks of big bulk and weight, the complete being deposited without any regard to bond or bedding.
This is the most effective kind and is built by tipping or dumping of rubble stones into the ocean until the heap or mound emerges out of the water, the mound being consolidated and its aspect slopes regulated with the aid of the motion of the waves.
The quantity of rubble depends upon the intensity, upward push of tides and waves and exposure.
On uncovered web sites, the waves steadily drag down the mound, giving it a flat slope on the sea face.
As a long way as viable, such flattening has to he blanketed.
The worrying movement of the waves is the most among the high and occasional water ranges.
Consequently, all protecting methods are adopted above the low water degree.
Protection is also very important to the pinnacle of the mound and outer or exposed face.
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Question 19. What Are Wharves?
Wharves: Platforms or touchdown locations are essential for ships to come back, close enough to the shore, for purposes of embarkation, disembarkation, and so forth. On the same time. These platform locations have to deliver sufficient intensity of water for the ship to flow. Such structures are, referred to as wharves.
They are constructed out into or on to. The water
Thus, a wharf offers a operating platform along the deliver in continuity of the shore.
A wharf is quay but the term wharf is generally used for an open shape of piles or posts with bracings, jutting from the shore in the direction of the ocean.
A wharf can be a sheet pile wall or it could consist of a piled projection without or with artificial retention of soil some distance at the back of or it can be a gravity wall.
Wharves might also both be parallel to the shore and abutting towards it or they will challenge into the water either at proper angles or indirect to the shore.
The former type is adopted at places in which depth of water is enough for the ships to berth, say 10 m to twelve m
The latter kind is adopted at places wherein intensity of water close to the shore isn't always sufficient for the ships to go into safely.
The level of wharf should be above the excessive water degree. But at the identical time, it should be low-priced to load the vessels when the water degree is low.
Wharf need to act as a unit whilst there may be an effect from any vessel.
Hence, it must be nicely braced and bolted. It is desirable to provide rounded corners for wharves which artwork possibly to be utilized by huge vessels.
Such a construction will result in a smooth access of vessels into the slips
Question 20. What Are Piers?
The structures that are built perpendicular or oblique to the shore of a river or sea are called piers.
In the ocean the piers are built in which the ocean isn't deep and the natural harbour is not handy for allowing the ships to berth adjoining to the shore.
In many instances, the piers are built with piles, columns and braces leaving suitable area for the sea cutting-edge to flow without inflicting any obstruction.
The dimensions of a pier need to be worked out very carefully.
Its period must be enough to deal with the longest ship probably to take its gain.
In other phrases, it need to project beyond the bow or stern of the deliver so that you can
guard its hull. Its width should be sufficient to meet its utility.
It may be stated that the pier have to be of enough width to allow smooth unloading of cargo without any undue put off.
Question 21. What Is Quays?
Quays : Wharves alongside and parallel to the’ shore, are typically known as quays and their safety partitions are called quay partitions
Question 22. Explain The Design Process Of Quay Walls?
They are constructed to hold and shield the embankment or filling:
Factors affecting the layout are as follows
Character of foundation;
Pressure because of water that finds its way to the real of the wall;
Effect of buoyancy for the part of the wall submerged;
Earth pressure at rear;
Weight of the wall itself;
stay load of cars passing on the platform at the rear;
lifeless load of the goods saved on the platform;
force of effect of vessels; and many others.
Quay wails are designed much like preserving walls; But at the water aspect, they're problem to various water pressure (thanks to level versions because of tides), and at the land side, earth and contained water pressures, with right allowances for surcharge.
Question 23. Explain About Jetties?
Jetties : These are the structures within the form of piled projections and they're constructed out from the shore to deep water and they may be built either for a navigable river or within the sea.
In rivers, the jetties divert the contemporary away from the river financial institution and therefore, the scouring action is averted.
As the current is diverted to deep waters, the navigation is also managed.
In the ocean, the jetties are pr at places wherein harbour front is laid low with littoral drift or the sea is shallow for a long distance.
Thus, they make bigger from the shore to the deep sea to acquire the ships.
In a limiting experience, a jetty is defined as a narrow structure projecting from the shore into water with berths on one or both facets and from time to time on the stop additionally.
Jetties are uncovered to extreme wave motion and their structural design is much like that of breakwater.
However, the designed requirements can be released to a certain extent because of the reality that the jetties are normally constructed ordinary to the most dangerous wave front.
The impact resulting from the berthing ships will depend on the talent of the berthing officer, neighborhood condition of currents, wind, and so forth.
The berthing pace depends upon the situation of method, wind, and many others. And it decreases with the increase within the size of the ships
Question 24. What Is A Fender?
Fender : The cushion that is provided on the face of jetty for ships to are available in touch is referred to as fender.
It is provided for various bureaucracy and is made of various substances.
The not unusual cloth used as fender for jetties is the framework of wooden pile driven into the ocean bed at a brief distance from the marina and filling the gap with coiled rope, springs, rubber, buffers, etc.
The fender device controls the relative motion among dock and ship resulting from wind and waves.
Hence, it additionally prevents the paint of ships being damaged.
For the reason of classification, the fenders may be classified in the following 4 categories:
Gravity-type fendering gadget.
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Question 25. Explain About Rubbing Strips?
Rubbing strips: In its most effective form, the fender device followed for small vessels consists of rubbing strips of wood, coir padding or used rubber tyres It is likewise handy to use pneumatic inflated tyres, both by way of postponing them or putting in them at right angles to jetty face. The inflated massive-length tyres are beneficial to switch cargo between mom ship and daughter ships. The pneumatic rubber fenders are very beneficial for transferring cargo from deliver to ship of big sizes.
Question 26. Explain About Timber Grill?
Timber grill: This machine is composed merely of vertical and horizontal timber contributors fixed to the face piles. This is a easy form of fender and to make it greater powerful, power fender piles may be driven alongside the quay face with cushion or spring inserted among them.
Question 27. Explain Gravity-kind Fendering System?
Gravity-kind fendering device: As the ships grew in length, this s got here into pressure and in its handiest form, it consists of a weighty fender that is raised up while there is an effect of the berthing ship and as a result, the initial strength of shock, is absorbed.
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Question 28. What Is Rubber Tendering?
Rubber tendering: Due to the development of rubber era and with, in addition increase in ship length, rubber fendering is preferred at gift. The shapes of rubber fenders may be cylindrical, square, V-form or cell kind.
Question 29. Explain About Signals?
Signals: The technique channel of a present day port need to be truely defined o demarcated by means of the supply of suitable alerts.
Thus, alerts will be required at the subsequent places:
Light ships ought to be supplied at essential changes in the path of the path of ships.
Lighted beacons are to be fixed on river banks
Buoys are required at front channels to ports
Requirements of a sign :
It ought to be conspicuously visible, from a long distance.
It have to now not vary in person and should be undoubtedly recognizable.
It must be simple for identification.
Question 30. What Are The Types Of Signals?
Types of alerts: The indicators are widely divided into the following three categories
The first classification of mild alerts may be very crucial. Fog alerts and audible signals are every now and then used.