Question 1. What Is Drupal?
Drupal is an open source content material control gadget imparting a toolset. With incorporated social media and e-commerce functionality, it affords unique cost as a part of your social media method.
Question 2. What Are System Requirements For Drupal?
A minimal base set up requires at the least 3MB of disk area however actual disk area is incredibly better. If you install many contributed modules and contributed issues, the actual disk space in your installation ought to without difficulty be forty MB or extra.
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Question 3. Compare Drupal To Commercial Cms System?
Drupal is frequently as compared to a number of business content control structures together with Crown Peak, ExpressionEngine, Clickability and Site Life in terms of capabilities. None of those structures provide the range of functions that can be found in Drupal or the bendy, developer-friendly architecture that lets in us to rapidly deploy dynamic net sites. In terms of sustainability, those structures lack the progressive technique to improvement, with updates and new capabilities constantly being introduced to the platform. These structures generally do surpass Drupal in terms of out-of-the-field reporting and metrics equipment, usually offering views of statistics that is additionally saved in other structures.
Question four. How Does Drupal Compare To Other Open Source Cms System?
Drupal is also regularly in comparison with other open supply content material management systems inclusive of Joomla, Plone, Scoop, Silver stripe, Typo3, Graffiti, Movable Type and Wordpress. There are feature capabilities to all of these structures that cause them to suitable in positive contexts, and most of them evaluate favorably to Drupal in a single class of operation or any other. But few of them are capable of supplying the stability between overall performance and capability determined in Drupal.
Question five. How Does Drupal Scale?
Drupal web sites are used in very annoying eventualities, serving millions of web page perspectives an afternoon. Drupal scalability and performance optimization is certainly one of our center talents, and we regularly paintings with current net homes to locate methods to enhance their performance.
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Question 6. What Kind Of Support Is Available To Drupal?
A wide variety of help offerings are available for businesses strolling Drupal websites. The Drupal network itself is an brilliant resource for people trying to study greater about the platform or solve specific troubles that emerge the usage of the machine. Acquia offers an company distribution of Drupal that consists of uptime tracking, e-mail and smartphone based troubleshooting assist, and subscription plans for sites with varying overall performance necessities.
Question 7. What Does Drupal Do?
Drupal is the choice for plenty extremely good internet web sites as it does a lot of different things very well, and allows specific kinds of statistics to have interaction effectively thru its flexible, open structure. Drupal's feature set is some distance extra monetary and practical for most corporation.
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Question eight. What Are The Applications Of Drupal?
Here are some normal Drupal usages:
Content control - Using a easy, browser-based totally interface, individuals can publish memories, blogs, polls, photographs, forums, etc. Administrators can without difficulty customise the layout in their Drupal set up.
Hierarchical ordering- The Drupal category machine permits hierarchical ordering, cross-indexing of posts and multiple category sets for most content types. Access to content is managed via administrator-described consumer roles. A seek alternative is likewise available.
Weblog - A unmarried set up may be configured as an individual private blog website online or more than one person weblogs. Drupal helps the Blogger API, affords RSS feeds for every man or woman weblog and may be set to ping weblog directories whilst new content is published on the house page.
Discussion-based totally community - A Drupal internet web site can be efficiently used as a discussion discussion board. Comment boards, connected to most content types, make it easy for individuals to speak about new posts. Administrators can manage whether or not content material and remarks are published without approval, with administrator approval or thru network moderation. Collaboration - Used for handling the construction of Drupal, the task module is appropriate for supporting other open source software projects. The collaborative book module includes versions manage, making it easy for a group to create, revise and hold documentation or any form of textual content.
Question nine. Why Use Drupal?
Here is a list of the Drupal benefits:
Easy to install.
Easy to use - no programming information wanted.
It has lots of features together with Search Engine Friendly URLs(SEF), categories, search feature.
It has masses of modules to increase your website online's functionality.
Flexibility - you could effortlessly turn your Drupal installation right into a forum, weblog, wiki and lots of other types of web websites.
It is free to use and it is open source. Drupal may be easily set up and changed to trade the supply code to fit you.
Lots of customers and a large network locate it easy to locate solutions to your issues.
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Question 10. What Is Comment Moderation In Drupal?
Drupal center consists of settings that will let you mild comments. Drupal's person get right of entry to controls assist you to specify whether or now not customers should have already got an account earlier than they could publish comments to the website. You also can specify whether or not a user (logged in or anonymous) might also depart a remark with out approval. Comment moderation is made less complicated thru the contributed module referred to as Notify. Notify will ship an electronic mail to the administrator each time someone leaves a touch upon their site.
Question 11. What Are The Key Features Of Drupal?
Drupal middle has key features that help with the integration of rich media, the Upload module and embedding. The Upload module allows users to attach special types of files to node varieties of your selecting. This feature allows for terribly simple integration with media documents. There are two obstacles that you may cope with when the use of the add module. The size of report uploads can be restrained via your net host that could restriction what styles of media you could upload to the website. If you're able to upload the file you want the add characteristic does now not offer any post upload processing or embed the media within your posts.
Drupal middle also allows you to embed media within nodes that is hosted on other web sites. So if you have images hosted on Flickr or videos hosted on YouTube you may paste the provided embed code into your posts. And you also are loose to create a link to the authentic place of the media to your publish. It is vital to note that if you want to embed media from different websites you need to have the "Full HTML" input layout decided on. The fashionable "Filtered HTML" input layout strips out the embed tags for security reasons.
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Question 12. What Is Taxonomy In Drupal?
Drupal comes with a constructed in taxonomy device. The taxonomy device allows you to categorize the nodes in your web site. The taxonomy device permits you to outline vocabularies will let you arrange your terms into groups. Each time period is largely a class. There isn't any restrict to the wide variety of vocabularies you could create. There is likewise no restrict to the quantity of terms that you may include in each vocabulary. Your vocabulary also can have loose tagging. So rather than coming into particular terms beforehand of time customers may additionally enter tags freely at the time the submit is written and those tags robotically become terms in that vocabulary.
This taxonomy machine makes Drupal very bendy and really effective because you can use your categories and phrases to show the content in your web site in a spread of various ways. For example, a contributed module referred to as Tagadelic lets in you to show categories as a tag cloud. You can also use your site categories to generate custom views and RSS feeds.
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Question 13. What Are Hooks In Drupal ?
Hooks in Drupal allows modules to have interaction with the Drupal middle. Drupal’s module machine is primarily based at the concept of “hooks”. A hook is a PHP characteristic that is known as foo_bar(), in which “foo” is the name of the module and “bar” is the call of the hook. Each hook has a defined set of parameters and a special result kind. To increase Drupal, a module want certainly put in force a hook. When Drupal desires to allow intervention from modules, it determines which modules implement a hook and calls that hook in all enabled modules that put in force it.
Question 14. Drupal Can Run On Command Line?
Yes, you may use drush – drush is a command line shell and Unix scripting interface for Drupal
Question 15. How To Enable Clean Urls In Drupal ?
The wellknown Drupal installation contains a pattern .Htaccess record which supports clean URLs. It is straightforward to miss copying this document, because of the leading “dot”. So earlier than trying to enable Clean URLs, ensure this record exists on your Drupal installation.
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Question sixteen. What Is Cms?
Content management gadget (CMS) is a set of approaches used to manipulate work drift in a collaborative surroundings. These techniques may be guide or pc-primarily based. The methods are designed to allow huge wide variety of people to contribute and percentage saved records Control access to information, based on consumer roles. Reduce repetitive duplicate enter Improve the convenience of record writing Improve verbal exchange between users.
In a CMS, information can be described as almost anything – documents, movies, photos, telephone numbers, etc. CMSs are often used for storing, controlling, revising, semantically enriching, and publishing documentation. Content this is managed is industry-unique
Question 17. What Is A Web Content Management System?
A Web content material control machine is content material management system software, carried out as a Web software, for creating and coping with HTML content. It is used to control and manage a massive dynamic series of Web material. A WCMS helps content advent, content manipulate, enhancing, and important Web maintenance functions. The software affords authoring equipment designed to allow users with little expertise of programming languages or markup languages to create and control content with relative ease. Most structures use a database to keep content, metadata, or artifacts that might be needed via the system. Content is frequently, but not universally, saved as XML, to facilitate reuse and enable bendy presentation options.
Most structures use server side caching boosting overall performance. This works high-quality while the WCMS is not modified frequently however visits manifest on a everyday basis. Administration is normally accomplished through browser-primarily based interfaces, but some systems require the usage of a fats patron.
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Question 18. Which Are Commonly Used Php Based Cmss ?
Drupal, Joomla, Wordpress, TYPO3.
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Question 19. How To Interact With Drupal Search System ?
There are three ways to interact with the hunt device: Specifically for searching nodes, you can implement nodeapi(‘update index’) and nodeapi(‘seek result’). However, observe that the hunt device already indexes all visible output of a node, i.E. Everything displayed commonly by means of hook_view() and hook_nodeapi(‘view’). This is commonly sufficient. You have to handiest use this mechanism if you want extra, non-visible statistics to be indexed.
Implement hook_search(). This will create a search tab on your module on the /search page with a simple keyword seek shape. You may additionally optionally implement hook_search_item() to customize the display of your outcomes.
Implement hook_update_index(). This allows your module to use Drupal’s HTML indexing mechanism for looking complete text efficiently.
If your module desires to provide a more complicated seek shape, then you definately need to implement it yourself with out hook_search(). In that case, you have to outline it as a local mission (tab) under the /seek page so that users can without difficulty locate it.
Question 20. Explain User, Permission, Role In Drupal?
Every traveller on your site, whether they've an account and log in or go to the site anonymously, is considered a consumer to Drupal. Each user has a numeric consumer ID, and non-nameless customers also have a user name and an email deal with. Other information can also be related to users by way of modules; as an instance, if you use the middle Profile module, you may define consumer profile fields to be associated with each person.
Anonymous customers have a consumer ID of zero (zero). The consumer with consumer ID one (1), which is the person account you create while you install Drupal, is special: that consumer has permission to do actually everything on the web site.
Other customers to your web page may be assigned permissions through roles. To try this, you first want to create a role, which you might name “Content editor” or “Member”. Next, you may assign permissions to that position, to inform Drupal what that role can and may’t do on the site. Finally, you will furnish sure customers for your web page your new role, so that it will mean that when those customers are logged in, Drupal will allow them to do the moves you gave that position permission to do.
You also can assign permissions for the special integrated roles of “nameless user” and “authenticated person”. Drupal permissions are pretty bendy — you're allowed to assign permission for any assignment to any role, relying on the desires of your website online.
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Question 21. Explain Region, Block, Menu In Drupal?
Pages on your Drupal website are specified in regions, which could encompass the header, footer, sidebars, and most important content section; your subject might also define additional areas. Blocks are discrete chunks of facts which can be displayed inside the regions of your site’s pages. Blocks can take the shape of menus, the output from modules, or dynamic and static chunks of data that you’ve created your self.
There are 3 standard menus in Drupal: Primary Links, Secondary Links, and Navigation. Primary and Secondary hyperlinks are built through site administrators, and displayed mechanically within the web page header of many topics. Navigation is the seize-all menu that consists of your management menus, in addition to hyperlinks supplied via modules to your site. You also can create your very own custom menus, and display them by way of enabling their blocks.
You can customise menus in several ways, together with reordering menu gadgets via putting their “weight” or sincerely dragging into place, renaming menu items, and changing the hyperlink identify. You can flow a menu object into a different menu by using editing the Parent property of the menu object.
You can also upload custom menu objects to a menu, from the Add menu object tab of the Menu management screen. To create a menu item, you'll want to provide the path to the content material.
Question 22. Explain The Function And Working Of Dashboard Module ?
The Dashboard module provides a Dashboard web page in the management menu. The aim of the Dashboard page is to present administrators a quick review of vital information at the website.
Question 23. What Is A Patch?
A patch is a report that includes a listing of variations among one set of files and another. All code adjustments, additions, or deletions to Drupal center and contributed modules/topics between builders are done thru patches.
The variations are presented in a established, widespread manner, this means that that a program (additionally named patch) can be used to apply the changes to every other reproduction of the unique report.
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Question 24. What Is Node In Drupal?
A node in Drupal is the frequent term for a bit of content in your internet site. (Note that the choice of the phrase “node” isn't always supposed inside the mathematical experience as part of a network.) Some examples of nodes:
Pages in books
Discussion topics in boards
Entries in blogs
News article testimonies
Each node on your site has a Content Type. It additionally has a Node ID, a Title, a introduction date, an creator (a user on the site), a Body (which can be left out/left out for some content material sorts), and a few other properties. By using modules which include the contributed Content Construction Kit (CCK) module, the middle Taxonomy module, and the contributed Location module, you may upload fields and other houses on your nodes.
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Question 25. What Is Comment In Drupal?
Comments are another type of content you can have on your web page (if you have enabled the middle Comment module). Each comment is a normal small piece of content that a consumer submits, connected to a specific node. For example, each piece of discussion connected to a selected discussion board topic node is a comment.
Question 26. How Database System Of Drupal Works ?
Drupal shops statistics in a database; each form of information has its very own database desk. For instance, the fundamental data about the nodes of your website online are saved in the Node desk, and in case you use the CCK module to feature fields to your nodes, the field records is saved in separate tables. Comments and Users also have their own database tables, and roles, permissions, and different settings are also stored in database tables.
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Question 27. Explain Updating Drupal?
There are specific "magnitudes" of enhancements. There are most important improvements and minor updates. A primary improve updates Drupal from one essential model. Because essential Drupal variations imply good sized adjustments, such upgrades are often time eating, requiring many steps each earlier than and after the real set up of the software program.
Minor updates circulate from one factor launch to any other more recent factor release. A point release is a software program replace that carries most effective malicious program fixes and minor characteristic modifications. Its essential model quantity remains the same, however its minor version (its point number) is incremented.
Drupal's cutting-edge essential version number is 7, and its minor model number (as of time of writing) is 12, so we've got version 7.12. Updating minor releases is a lot less complicated than essential improvements, and need to additionally be completed frequently. Since maximum minor variations are launched for safety or balance reasons, they may be usually pretty important. In this section, we can study updating Drupal multi-web site configurations. The technique differs from upgrading a unmarried-site instance in that there are more steps, and the order of steps have to be done carefully. Since a multi-web site runs only one copy of Drupal, all of the sites on a multi-web site install should be updated at the identical time. Multi-website online updates differ from unmarried-site updates in one important way: at the same time as Drupal's code desires to be updated only as soon as, each individual site needs to go through the updating method. To preserve web page effect to a minimum (and to keep away from catastrophes), doing those updates calls for a special technique.
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Question 28. How To Fetch A New Version Of Drupal?
You can use your internet browser to go to Drupal.Org and down load the most up-to-date version, or you could use any variety of equipment to do that for you. For example, you may use Drush, if you have it established and configured in the Vagrant profile).
Question 29. Which Are Commonly Used Php Based Cmss ?
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Question 30. What Are Gnu Licenses ?
Not in any respect—there are many other unfastened software licenses. We have an incomplete listing. Any license that offers the user positive unique freedoms is a loose software program license.
Question 31. Why Are So Many Drupal Versions Available – four.×, 5.× …? Which One Should I Use?
It is recommended which you run the most current solid launch. This can usually be observed on the Drupal Project web page. However, if there are no compelling capabilities within the modern day model, a contrib module that is critical to you isn’t geared up otherwise you don’t have time, there is no want to hurry your upgrade so long as safety updates are to be had for the version you're running.
Question 32. Can I Use Drupal On The Command Line?
Yes, you can use drush.
Drush is a command line shell and Unix scripting interface for Drupal.
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Question 33. What Is Database Abstraction Layer In Drupal ?
Allow the use of different database servers using the equal code base.
Drupal offers a slender database abstraction layer to offer builders with the potential to aid more than one database servers easily. The rationale of this sediment is to hold the syntax and energy of SQL as a good deal as possible, while letting Drupal manage the portions of queries that want to be written differently for specific servers and offer fundamental security checks.
Most Drupal database queries are finished with the aid of a name to db_query() or db_query_range(). Module authors must additionally don't forget the use of pager_query() for queries that return results that need to be supplied on multiple pages, and tablesort_sql() for generating suitable queries for sortable tables.
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Question 34. What Is A Module In Drupal ?
A module is software program (code) that extends Drupal features and/or capability. Core modules are those included with the main download of Drupal, and you could switch on their functionality with out putting in extra software program. Contributed modules are downloaded from the Modules down load section of drupal.Org, and established within your Drupal installation. You can also create your own modules; this requires a radical expertise of Drupal, PHP programming, and Drupal module API.
Question 35. Explain The Concept Of Node In Drupal?
A node in Drupal is the prevalent time period for a bit of content material to your internet website. (Note that the choice of the phrase “node” isn't meant inside the mathematical sense as part of a network.) Some examples of nodes:
Pages in books
Discussion topics in forums
Entries in blogs
News article memories
Each node to your web page has a Content Type. It also has a Node ID, a Title, a advent date, an creator (a user at the web page), a Body (which can be unnoticed/omitted for a few content sorts), and a few different houses. By the usage of modules including the contributed Content Construction Kit (CCK) module, the middle Taxonomy module, and the contributed Location module, you could add fields and different residences for your nodes.
Question 36. Concept Of Comment In Drupal ?
Comments are some other kind of content you could have to your website online (when you have enabled the core Comment module). Each remark is a commonly small piece of content that a user submits, attached to a selected node. For instance, every piece of debate connected to a particular forum subject matter node is a comment.
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Question 37. Explain Taxonomy In Drupal?
Drupal has a system for classifying content, that's known as taxonomy and applied in the middle Taxonomy module. You can define your personal vocabularies (organizations of taxonomy terms), and add terms to every vocabulary. Vocabularies may be flat or hierarchical, can permit single or a couple of choice, and can also be “loose tagging” (which means that after growing or enhancing content, you may add new phrases on the fly). Each vocabulary can then be attached to one or greater content types, and in this manner, nodes in your web site may be grouped into classes, tagged, or categorized in any way you pick out.
Question 38. What Is Difference Between Diff And Patch ?
diff creates patch In easy terms, the diff command is used to compare variations between versions of a record. The resulting report is referred to as a patch, and normally is given (by means of the person) a “.Patch” suffix.
This patch record then can be used on different copies of the “vintage” file by way of the use of the patch command, hence updating their “antique” file(s) to suit the “new” record(s).
Why you'll use diff When may one use diff to create a patch record? Let’s say you're customizing a module to restoration a trojan horse, and have stored a new edition of the module. How will you pass to your worm repair to others? Simply passing on your model of the module won't paintings, because it’s quite viable a person else has changed some other issue of the code on the identical time and also you each could be overwriting every others’ adjustments.
So instead, what you do is administered diff among the 2 files, and then upload the resulting patch — which others can then practice to their files using the patch command. (And you can apply other human beings’s patches towards your documents, with out dropping your personal changes.).
The introduced gain of this form of workflow is that changes to the code can without problems be tracked — and undone, if important — that is crucial in a network-evolved venture inclusive of Drupal.
Question 39. List The Features Of Drupal ?
Rock stable & high nice platform
Powerful templating device. Any XHTML or CSS template may be easily transformed to Drupal
Real multi-web page-feature (simplest one installation for several websites)
Any Kind of user businesses & person permissions, OpenId compliant in Version 6
Can run membership and network sites, now not simplest CMS and many others
Clear, excessive pleasant code and API (clean to integrate with different answers etc)
Question 40. Explain The Capabilities Of Views Module?
The Views module affords a bendy technique for Drupal site designers to govern how lists and tables of content (nodes in Views 1, nearly whatever in Views 2) are provided.
Traditionally, Drupal has hard-coded maximum of this, specially in how taxonomy and tracker lists are formatted.
This tool is largely a smart question builder that, given sufficient records, can construct the proper question, execute it, and show the consequences. It has four modes, plus a special mode, and presents an outstanding quantity of functionality from those modes.
Among different things, Views can be used to generate reviews, create summaries, and display collections of pics and other content material.
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Question 41. What Is Pdo?
PDO is an acronym for PHP Data Objects. PDO is a lean, constant manner to get entry to databases. This approach developers can write portable code a lot easier. PDO isn't an abstraction layer like Pear DB. PDO is a more like a information get entry to layer which makes use of a unified API (Application Programming Interface).
Question forty two. Which Are The Core Required Modules In Drupal 6.X ?
Block — Controls the boxes which are displayed round the principle content material.
Filter — Handles the filtering of content in training for show.
Node — Allows content material to be submitted to the website online and displayed on pages.
System — Handles widespread site configuration for administrators.
User — Manages the user registration and login system.
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Question 43. Is It Possible To Disable The Core Required Modules Through Drupal Admin ?
No, it is not viable to disable the middle required modules.
Question forty four. Which Are The Core Optional Modules In Drupal 6.X ?
Aggregator Aggregates syndicated content material (RSS, RDF, and Atom feeds).
Blog Enables preserving easily and regularly up to date person web pages or blogs.
Blog API Allows customers to put up content material the use of packages that help XML-RPC blog APIs.
Book Allows users to shape web page pages in a hierarchy or outline.
Color Allows the consumer to change the colour scheme of positive issues.
Comment Allows users to touch upon and discuss published content material.
Contact Enables the usage of both private and placement-wide touch paperwork.
Content translation Allows content material to be translated into distinctive languages.
Database logging Logs and information gadget occasions to the database.
Forum Enables threaded discussions about general subjects.
Help Manages the display of online assist.
Locale Adds language handling capability and enables the translation of the consumer interface to languages aside from English.
Menu Allows administrators to customize the web site navigation menu.
OpenID Allows customers to log into your web site the usage of OpenID.
Path Allows customers to rename URLs.
PHP filter Allows embedded PHP code/snippets to be evaluated.
Ping Alerts other web sites while your web site has been updated.
Poll Allows your site to capture votes on special topics inside the form of a couple of preference questions.
Profile Supports configurable consumer profiles.
Search Enables website-wide keyword looking.
Statistics Logs access statistics in your web page.
Syslog Logs and facts device activities to syslog.
Taxonomy Enables the categorization of content material.
Throttle Handles the auto-throttling mechanism, to manipulate website congestion.
Tracker Enables tracking of new posts for customers.
Trigger Enables movements to be fired on positive device activities, together with whilst new content is created.
Update fame Checks the status of to be had updates for Drupal and your mounted modules and issues.
Upload Allows users to add and connect files to content material.