Question 1. What Is Ethernet?
Ethernet is a Local Area Network (LAN) cabling and signaling specification for baseband networks. Ethernet uses a bus or celebrity topology for connecting specific nodes in a network.
Question 2. To Which Osi Layer Does Ethernet Belong?
Ethernet belongs to each the Physical Layer (Layer 1) and the Data Link layer (Layer 2) within the OSI architecture.
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Question 3. What Are The Standard Data Rates For Ethernet?
The popular facts fees for Ethernet are 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, and 1 Gbps
Question 4. How Two Systems In An Ethernet Network Communicate?
In a Ethernet network, a gadget announces the records using a Ethernet body. The vacation spot device is special in the Ethernet body using its Ethernet address. All the structures within the community pay attention for an Ethernet body with their Ethernet address in it. When a device gets an Ethernet body with its cope with in it, it processes the body and sends it to the better layers (like IP) for similarly processing.
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Question 5. What Is A "collision"?
At anyone instance, in an Ethernet community, best one tool can transmit. If gadgets transmit at the identical example, then the signals from both gadgets will collide and a "collision" will arise. When a "collision" occurs, the signals gets distorted and the frame could be misplaced. Collisions are very common in a Ethernet network.
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Question 6. How Is "collision" Handled In Ethernet Networks?
Ethernet makes use of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) media get entry to manage mechanism to discover and get over a collision.
Question 7. What Is Csma/cd?
CSMA/CD is a media get admission to control mechanism utilized in Ethernet to get over body collision. The following steps are followed to get over a collision.
Step 1: Before an Ethernet tool sends a body on the Ethernet cable, it listens to locate if some other device is already transmitting a body (Carrier Sense).
Step 2: Once the tool finds that different gadgets aren't transmitting any frame, it starts transmitting the frame. If two gadgets locate that the Ethernet cable is loose on the equal time, then both will begin transmitting the frames (Multiple Access). This will result in collision.
Step three: The Ethernet devices at the same time as transmitting the frames, additionally pay attention for the collision. (Collision Detect).
Step 4: If they come across a collision, both the gadgets stop sending the frame (back down).
Step five: They retry the transmission after a logarithmic time-out period. This manner is repeated until the frame is transmitted correctly, for a maximum of 16 times. The body is discarded after the 16th retry.
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Question eight. What Is "past due Collision"?
An Ethernet tool will stumble on a collision, whilst it is transmitting, best if the collision reaches it earlier than it completes transmitting the whole body. If the collision reaches the transmitter, after it finished sending the entire frame, then the transmitter will now not discover the collision, it will assume the collision passed off due to some other frame. This is called "past due collision". Late collision will occur, if the period of the Ethernet network phase is extra than the standard allowed duration.
Question nine. How "past due Collision" Is Avoided In Ethernet?
Late collision may be averted, if the most length of the Ethernet community section is constrained, such that if a collision takes place, it'll reach the transmitter earlier than the transmitter finished transmitting the complete body. In a typical 10 Mbps community, the minimum duration of an Ethernet body is 576 bits (72 bytes) and the maximum period of a unmarried Ethernet community phase is two.5 kms.
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Question 10. What Is An Ethernet Address?
Each device in an Ethernet community is uniquely diagnosed via a forty eight bit (6 bytes) address referred to as Ethernet address. Ethernet deal with is also known as Media Access Control (MAC) deal with. Ethernet addresses are represented as six pairs of hexadecimal digits separated by way of a colon. Ethernet address are buried inside the community adapter by the producer. A Ethernet cope with of a device can't be modified. Example: 00:60:08:11:B1:AB, 00:00:c0:5e:eighty three:0e
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Question eleven. What Is A Broadcast Address?
The Ethernet address in which all of the bits are 1 is known as a published cope with. It is represented as FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF. A frame with this cope with is obtained and processed by way of all of the nodes within the network.
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Question 12. What Are The Different Ethernet Frame Formats?
The unique Ethernet frame formats are listed under: Ethernet II and IEEE 802.Three
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Question 13. Why There Are Different Ethernet Frame Formats?
Xerox advanced the first version of Ethernet, Ethernet I. The 2d model of Ethernet, Ethernet II, became developed by means of DEC, Intel and Xerox. After this the Ethernet turned into standardized by means of IEEE and the brand new format is called 802.3 format. To offer backward compatibility with Ethernet II, 802.2 SNAP layout become developed.
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Question 14. How Is The Length Of An Ethernet Ii Frame Calculated?
The period of an Ethernet II body isn't always gift within the frame itself. It depends on the Ethernet community interface used. When the interface sends a frame to the community tool driver, it supplies the duration of the received body.
Question 15. What Is The Minimum And Maximum Size Of An Ethernet Frame?
The minimal size of an Ethernet frame is sixty four bytes. The breakup of this length between the fields is: Destination Address (6 bytes) + Source Address (6 bytes) + Frame Type (2 bytes) + Data (forty six bytes) + CRC Checksum (four bytes). The minimum variety of bytes passed as statistics in a body must be 46 bytes. If the scale of the statistics to be surpassed is less than this, then padding bytes are brought. The maximum size of an Ethernet frame is 1518 bytes. The breakup of this size between the fields is: Destination Address (6 bytes) + Source Address (6 bytes) + Frame Type (2 bytes) + Data (1500 bytes) + CRC Checksum (4 bytes). The most quantity of bytes of data that can be exceeded in a single frame is 1500 bytes.
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Question sixteen. Why Sub Network Access Protocol (snap) Header Is Required?
The 802.2 LLC header replaces the 'protocol kind' of the Ethernet II layout with two SAP fields, Source SAP and Destination SAP. The cost of the SAP subject in the 802.2 header is equal to the 'protocol kind' subject inside the Ethernet II header. The value of the SAP area can be among 1 and 255, due to the fact that it's far an 8 bit discipline. On the other hand, the 'protocol kind' price for the same old protocols like IP, ARP, and so forth is grater than 1500. Obviosuly, these values can't be represented inside the SAP fields. So to provide compatibility with Ethernet II, SNAP header changed into added to the 802.2 LLC header. In a SNAP body, each the SAP values could be 0xAA and the primary 5 bytes of the statistics will provide the protocol ID. Out of the 5 bytes of records, the closing 2 bytes are identical because the protocol type field of the Ethernet II body. The first 3 bytes are referred to as as 'Organizationally Unique Identifer' (OUI) and are allocated as a vendor identifier. Typically, OUI can be zero.
Question 17. How To Differentiate Between An 802.3 Frame And An Ethernet Ii Frame?
The fee of 'length' area in an 802.Three frame should be much less than 1500 and in a Ethernet II body the cost of 'kind' field ought to be greater than 1500. Since the 802.Three body 'duration' area and the Ethernet II frame 'kind' discipline are on the identical offset from the header, relying on the price present, the frame may be differentiated.
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Question 18. What Is Promiscuous Mode?
Normally, a Ethernet network interface will pass a body to the above network layers simplest if it's miles addressed to that interface. If the community interface is put in the promiscuous mode, the Ethernet network interface will ship all the frames (frames addressed to any host within the community), irrespective of their destination deal with to the above network layers. This mode is used by community analyzers to capture all the frames.
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Question 19. What Is Mtu?
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is the most variety of bytes that may be transmitted in a unmarried transmission unit. Every communique medium has a MTU. For Ethernet, the MTU of a frame is 1500.
Question 20. What Is Ethernet ?
Ethernet is a medium that's used by devices like computers, switches , routers, hubs and many others. If devices needs to ship facts among each other the usage of ethernet era, each the devices should help ethernet. For instance, there are community interface playing cards which assist ethernet, switches and routers which aid ethernet community playing cards. Ethernet comes on the layer 2 of the OSI Model and Layer 1 of the TCP/IP Model.
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Question 21. What Is An Ethernet Frame ?
An ethernet body is used for encapsulating records from the higher layers of the TCP/IP Model. Assume that a PC1 pings PC2. The ping , which is an ICMP packet in conjunction with the IP Header is encapsulated in the ethernet frame. The frame is used for carrying the ping packet and in the end deliver it to PC2.
Question 22. What Are The Components Of An Ethernet Frame?
Ethernet frames are of different sorts. Typically they consist of the source mac-address, destination mac-deal with, records from the top layer, form of information like IP, IPX and so on, preamble (for clocking) and a FCS price for figuring out the validity of the body (Checks if the frame is invalid, corrupt, and so forth)
Question 23. How Is An Ethernet Frame Constructed?
An ethernet frame is built via the community card. When statistics at the working system , comes right down to the community card, the body might be constructed to ship the information out at the network.
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Question 24. How Is A Frame Received At The Destination?
The preamble subject is seemed into first inner a frame. This is only for synchronization. This is accompanied by means of the vacation spot looking into whether the frame is supposed for itself or now not, by checking the vacation spot mac-deal with. Once the mac-deal with is tested, the FCS cost is calculated. If a mismatch is determined , the frame is discarded. Else, the facts sort of the body is regarded into and the facts is ship to the appropriate layers of the operating device (IP Layer).
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