Question 1. Do Signals Really Travel Faster In Fiber Optics?
You realize that "sending communications at the rate of light" manner the velocity of mild in glass (about 2/three C), but you is probably amazed to recognize that signals in UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cables like Cat 5e travel at approximately the identical speed (2/three C). Coax, meanwhile, has a quicker NVP (nominal speed of propagation), about zero.9C, because of it is design. Fibers "velocity" is not regarding the velocity of the sign within the fiber, however the bandwidth capability of the fiber.
Question 2. Can You Give Me A Definition Of Structured Cabling?
"Structured Cabling" refers to a standardized cabling architecture, specified by way of EIA/TIA 568 within the US and ISO 11801 the world over. It makes use of twisted pair and fiber optic cables to create a standardized cabling system designed for phones and LANs constructed through many producers. The nomenclature here is even much less precise. Vendors additionally talk over with this as "established cabling", information-voice cabling, low-voltage cabling and restrained-strength cabling.
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Question 3. What Are Some Of The Uses Of Fiber Optic Cabling In The Business World?
The largest use is telephony, followed by CATV, then LAN backbones, connecting hubs. Next is connecting far off video cameras for protection structures. The building control and security structures are switching to fiber in many buildings because of distance and EMI necessities. Fiber is not often used to the desk because it's miles seemed to be too costly, however it lets in a device without wiring closets, making the price much less in most instances. Gigabit Ethernet will pressure even greater fiber into networks, considering the fact that UTP applications will be too difficult to install.
Question 4. Will "wise Buildings" Use Fiber Optics Or Copper Wiring To Carry Voice/facts/video Throughout The Structure?
Both. Fiber might be used whilst the distances are longer than 90 meters or records costs are better (e.G. Gigabit Ethernet). Most backbones may be fiber. Desktop connections to telecom closets will be copper for the near future, until network managers find out what a telecom closet really fees! Phones will maintain to apply copper until all of us visit voice over IP. Video (CCTV) uses fiber for distances over about a hundred and fifty-250 meters.
Question 5. I Need To Be Able To Measure The "authentic" Or "useful" Power Of A Vcsel Laser Diode. To Do This, I Believe I Need To Measure The Peak-to-top Power (the Extinction Ratio?).
All FO strength meters measure average electricity. This is clearly top electricity diluted through duty cycle. If the responsibility cycle of the sign and the average electricity, you may calculate height power as (Avg pwr/responsibility cycle). If you're measuring a signal with a clock of fifty% duty cycle (1-0-1-zero, and many others), the meter will examine 1/2 the peak power. Most high pace networks are sending random facts, so the duty cycle can possibly be assumed to be 50%. Many structures have a test mode that transmits 50% obligation cycle only for optical trying out.
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Question 6. How Do You Classify Fiber Optic Cable?
By NEC - UL - flame retardancy
By cable types (tight buffer/distribution/breakout/unfastened tube)
By fiber types (multimode/singlemode/hybrid)
Whether it has fiber and twine (composite cable)
Question 7. What Type Of Fiber Is Required To Run At Gigabit Speed?
Depends on how a long way you need to go. Plain antique FDDI fiber (a hundred and sixty MHz-km bandwidth @ 850 nm and 500 MHz-km @ 1300 nm ) will move ~240 m with a 850 VCSEL or 500 m with a 1300 laser. Practically every fiber manufacturer has 50/125 laser-optimized top rate fiber (OM2/OM3/OM4) in order to go loads in addition -as far as 2 km - and whilst it is greater costly, we propose it for any backbone applications.
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Question eight. What Is Modal Bandwidth, And How Does It Effect What Distances Gigabit Ethernet Can Travel Over Fiber?
Modal bandwidth is as a result of the reality that mild in multimode fiber travels in rays or "modes" that take distinct instances to get to via the fiber, inflicting dispersion. The longer the fiber, the more the effect. This is a prime factor in the distance drawback of GBE and the inducement for fiber producers to expand better multimode fiber. While the worst case distance for sixty two.Five/one hundred twenty five FDDI-spec fiber the use of a 850 nm VCSEL supply is best 220 m, laser-optimized 50/one hundred twenty five fiber able to 1 km is now to be had.
Question 9. What Is The Difference In Connectorization In Tight Buffered And Loose Tube Type Of Cables?
A tight buffer cable can be terminated immediately. THe 900 micron coating on the fiber is rugged enough to permit the relationship to be connected without delay and if there is a 3 mm jacket, it's far crimped to the connector for electricity.
A unfastened tube cable has 250 micron buffer at the fiber in it and is simply too fragile to connect a connector at once. It has be be used with a breakout kit that sleeves the fiber in a protective tube before termination.
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Question 10. Can I Splice 62.Five/a hundred twenty five Fiber To 50/a hundred twenty five Fiber? If So What Type Of Nominal Loss Would I Be Looking At At For My Loss Budget?
If you splice it, you'll get directional losses. Transmitting from 50 to sixty two.5 fiber, you will get simply no losses but from sixty two.Five to 50, you will get at the very least 1.6-1.9 dB loss due to the scale and NA mismatch. (50 micron fiber has a lower numerical aperture (NA) than 62.Five) for a desk of interconnection losses with exclusive size fibers.
Question eleven. Does This Still Hold True With Six Fiber Or 12 Fiber Premise Style Cable?
Absolutely. Remove the jacket, reduce off the fibers and critical electricity member and tie a swivel onto the kevlar. You'll want approximately 6 inches of kevlar, tie with a double knot at the swivel then tape the kevlar returned along the cable, esp. Overlaying the cease of the jacket, to save you the kevlar from pulling unfastened or the cable snagging even as pulling.
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Question 12. Is There Any Independent Testing Procedures On "rodent Proof" Optical Cables And What Sort Of Qualification/s Being Used To Justify?
There is a take a look at referenced in GR-20 trouble 2. I have heard that there are facilities which nevertheless perform the check, but I am now not familiar with any of them. I understand of no-one who is trying to justify the test.
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Question thirteen. What Measurements Are Manufacturers Using When They Claimed That Their Products Are Of "rodent Resistance", "rodent Proof" And "rodent Protection".
The test referenced above did now not use any of these phrases, however simply gave a harm score. There is anecdotal statistics that a few cable / duct sorts have much less rodent harm in the area than different cable / duct sorts.
Question 14. How Are These Three Terms Differentiate In Terms Of Classification With Respect To The Rodent Issue"?
There is not any corporation, of which I am aware, which offers any formal definition to the terms. Rodent resistance" and "rodent protection" are currently used by a few businesses, for cable designs which they experience have experienced much less damage within the subject. "Rodent evidence" , to the fine of my understanding, has simplest been utilized by a organisation which makes ductwork .
Question 15. Can You Give Me A Definition Of Fiber Optics?
What we name "fiber optics" is communications through modulated light guided via a obvious optical fiber. As a fantastically young generation, the nomenclature may be pretty numerous among users. In the United Kingdom, it is fiber optics, every now and then its fiber optics or fiber optics (as one phrase). Within the commercial enterprise, we normally say "fiber" when we discuss with the optical fiber itself, despite the fact that a few use it to mean a cable of optical fiber. Lennie Lightwave has a fiber optic word list at the internet.
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Question 16. What Do I Need For Connecting Optic Fibre Cable To A Cat five Cable?
You want a tool referred to as a "media converter" available from some of groups for $100-200.
Question 17. Will A Single Mode Connector Work On Multi-mode Cable?
The answer is maybe you could use SM connectors on MM but NOT the opposite. SM connectors are made to tighter tolerances - as is SM fiber - so the ferrule hole may be too small for a few MM fibers. MM connectors have larger holes for the fiber and will have excessive loss (>1dB) with SM. Also MM connectors might not be PC (physical contact) polish - horrible for return loss. MM fiber may not in shape the smaller hollow in SM connectors.
Question 18. If You Have A 50 Micron Fiber Backbone, Can You Use sixty two.Five Fiber Jumpers On Each End?
NO! On the receiver give up it is OK, however on the transmitter give up, the larger center of sixty two.Five into smaller 50 micron fiber could have losses of 2-four dB.
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Question 19. Why Do Some Power Meters Have Calibration At 1300 Nm While Others Are 1310 Nm?
Convention. The "respectable" laser center wavelength is 1310 nm, however vary between 1290 and 1330 nm. LEDs are vast spectral output devices that have outputs over a huge variety of wavelengths, roughly targeted around 1300 nm. We opt to simply say 1300 nm, and so does NIST, who calibrate at this wavelength with a 1300 nm YAG laser.
Question 20. Where Do I Find The Best Information On Fiber Optics For Lighting?
We're now not into fiber optic lighting however we've an instructional on lighting on our internet site.