Question 1. What Is Function Point Analysis? What Is Function Point?
Function Point Analysis (FPA) is a software measurement approach based at the users point of view. It measures the software capabilities and Function Point (FP) is its measuring unit. The method has as an objective to emerge as unbiased of the technology getting used to construct the software program. In other words, FPA appears to measure what the software program does and not how the software program turned into advanced.
This being stated, the dimension technique (additionally called function point counting) is based on a preferred evaluation of the user’s functional requirements. This popular manner is described through IFPUG within the Counting Practices Manual.
The important estimation strategies used for software program improvement projects anticipate that the software program length is an essential driver for the estimation of its development effort. Thus, understanding its length is one of the first steps in the attempt, period and fee estimation.
At this point it is crucial to recognise that feature factors do now not degree effort, productiveness nor value directly. It is exclusively a software practical length unit. This length, in conjunction with other variables, is what might be used to derive pro-ductivity, estimate effort and fee of software program projects.
Question 2. Who Created Function Points Analysis (fpa)? Why It Was Created?
Function Point Analysis (FPA) turned into invented in 1970's because of a mission develo-ped by way of the researcher Allan Albrecht of IBM. His activity worried a productivity analisys for software program projects advanced through a provider unit of IBM. To do this he evolved a way to measure software independently of the programming language used, checking simplest the outside aspects of the software, primarly primarily based at the user's vision.
You can examine the complete and original work in which Function Point Analysis was presented in October of 1979: Measuring Application Development Productivity — Allan J. Albrecht. This article is tons more than only a ancient interest, and is still applicable these days.
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Question three. Is The Function Point Analysis (fpa) Technique Owned By Some Company?
No. Despite having emerged in IBM, the end result of this assignment became opened to the entire software network.
Nowadays, the standard recognized for Function Point Analysis (FPA) is described in Counting Practices Manual (CPM) mantained by the IFPUG — International Function Point Users Group.
The IFPUG is a nonprofit entity composed by using people and companies from everywhere in the global, with the purpose of selling a higher management of the development proces-ses and software protection by way of using the Function Point Analysis.
Question four. What Are Function Point Analysis (fpa) Benefits?
We can spotlight numerous blessings on applying characteristic point analysis in agencies:
A tool for determining the size of a bought package by using counting all of the features included.
Provides help to users in dedication of advantages of a bundle for his or her organization, by way of counting the capabilities that specifically fit their necessities. When assessing the cost of the bundle, the scale of the features so one can be effecti-vely used, the productiveness and price of the group of workers is feasible to perform a “make or buy” evaluation.
Supports the analysis of productiveness and high-quality, either directly or together with different metrics inclusive of effort, fee and defects. But if the improvement approach of the enterprise is chaotic (each task is developed in a one-of-a-kind way), even supposing the func-tion points counting of the project and the attempt document were made efficaciously, the analysis of productivity most of the projects might had been impaired.
Supports the task scope management. A task of any challenge manager is to manipulate “scope creep”, or the boom of the scope. To make estimates and measure-ments of function points of the mission at every degree of its existence cycle is feasible to discourage-mine whether or not the practical necessities accelerated or reduced, and whether or not this variation corresponds to new requirements or requirements that already exist and were just extra designated.
Complements necessities control to help in verifying the soundness and completeness of the specified necessities. The system of counting function points favors a structured and systematic analysis of the requirements specification and brings comparable benefits to a peer review method.
A device for estimating fees and assets for software improvement and maintanance. By sporting out a count or estimate characteristic points early within the lifecycle of a software mission, it’s feasible to decide its functional length. This dimension can be used as enter for plenty models of effort, time and price estimation.
A tool to assist agreement negotiation. Function factors can be used to generate seve-ral carrier level signs (SLA – Service Level Agreement) in software program development and protection contracts. Besides that, it permits settlement establishments by using the use of unit charge – characteristic points – wherein a unit represents a tangible asset to the purchaser. This modality allows for a higher hazard distribution among the customer and provider.
A normalization aspect for software program assessment or for comparison of productiveness inside the use of differents strategies. Several companies, along with ISBSG, offer a records repo-sitory of software initiatives that enable the implementation of benchmarking with similar initiatives in the marketplace.
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Question 5. Is It Necessary To Be A Software Developer (systems Analyst, Programmer, Etc.) To Use The Function Point Analysis (fpa)?
No. The first rate advantage of the Function Point Analysis is that it is based at the USERS POINT OF VIEW, permitting its ideas to be understood through the developer and the person. The intention of the approach is to degree the functiona-lity that the software presents to the user no matter generation used for its implementation. This dimension is based totally handiest on the necessities that the software have to attend to.
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Question 6. Is There An Entity Or Organization Responsible For The Standardization Of Fpa?
The popular diagnosed by way of the software enterprise for FPA is the Counting Practice Manual (CPM) maintained with the aid of the IFPUG (International Function Point Users Group).
The IFPUG is a non-profit entity composed of human beings and businesses of diverse international locations whose motive is to sell higher development procedure control and renovation of software program through FPA.
Question 7. Has There Been Any Enhancements In Function Point Analysis (fpa) After Its Creation?
Yes, because the first guide of Function Point Analysis proposed in 1979, numerous refinements have been incorporated to the method over the years. -And this technique conti-nues. But the gist of the method has changed little or no. This results from the fact that the method is oriented to degree the capability that the software program affords to the consumer, no matter the technological platform on which the software program, improvement methodology or programming language used for its creation.
After the founding of IFPUG in 1986, systematic and steady improvement of the Function Point Analysis changed into created. IFPUG has a committee responsible for the editing and updating of the Counting Practices Manual, which currently is at model 4.Three, this version turned into published in January 2010.
There is not any defined frequency for the IFPUG to publish updates to its guide, and the updates do now not searching for radical changes. They have the aim to provide similarly clarifi-cations concerning the definitions and counting rules, thus enhancing the consistency of measurements and decreasing the subjectivity in the interpretations.
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Question 8. Who Uses Function Point Analysis (fpa) In The World?
The IFPUG has affiliates in greater than forty international locations round the world, having a strong presence in Germany, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Korea, United States, India, England, Italy, Colombia, Uruguay, Mexico, Argentina and the Netherlands.
Companies inclusive of IBM, Unisys, Xerox, HP, CitiGroup, Tata Consulting Services, Lockheed Martin EIS, Booz Allen & Hamilton, Nielsen Media Research, Banco do Brasil, Citibank, HSBC, Indra , Bank of Canada, Ralston Purina Co., Banco de la República (Central Bank of Colombia), Northrop Grumman Corp, Samsung SDS Co Ltd, BASF Corporation, Banco Central de Chile, Accenture, IBM, Petrobras, Pepsi Co, Compuware, Pricewaterhouse Cooper, Vale, Banco Santander, Petrobras and Telefonica, among others, are using function points for software program undertaking control.
Question 9. Is It Possible To Use Function Point Analysis (fpa) In An Object-orientated Design?
Yes. Function Point Analysis (FPA) is an independent technology method used to model or implement software. Therefore, a piece of software has the identical funcational length in function factors, whether or not it´s advanced the usage of OO generation or another appro-ach.
What can be distinct between the two processes is that in OO design, productiveness (hours/FP) may be higher because of reuse. Making an analogy with a construction building: we will build a house of 100m2 in the traditional way or the use of prefabricated modu-les. In each cases, the size of the house will be the equal, the only differing factors will be the construction time or fee.
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Question 10. What’s The Size To Consider That A Software Project Is Small, Medium Or Large?
It is proper inside an corporation that the undertaking control method be scalable according with the challenge size. Big initiatives want extra rigorous and formal on its control than small projects. Using the equal approach for any length mission manner burdening smaller projects with a tremendously excessive fee of control, ie, waste of assets.
There isn't any enterprise standard definition to outline if a undertaking is small, medium or big. This is a relative concept and it need to be solved by using each corporation. In truth, it’s not normally vital to outline a project in 3 tiers (small, medium and massive). For organi-zations that typically paintings in a similar manner, that category could be needless and using the same control method for all projects might be the first-class method. Some corporations have a control methods for just two forms of initiatives (small and huge). Also, it isn't prohibited if an organisation desires to outline greater than 3 degrees for the mission size; (as an example: small, medium, massive and extra big). But this isn't always typical.
In summary, the idea of small, medium or big could be very relative; every organization can set up it personal criteria to rent a mission in terms of its size.
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Question 11. What Is The Price Of One Function Point ($/fp)?
The value of $/FP will vary according with the paintings required for the transport of tender-ware capability, according with the technical popular and fine required by clients, as well as the amount of deliverables (artifacts, documents, models, and so on) required with the aid of the purchaser. In precis, everything that influences substantially the cost but has no direct relation to the size measured by the Function Point Analysis (FPA), is computed at the feature factor rate.
Example 1: when you rent a organization just for coding and testing a gadget, it's far expec-ted that the function point charge might be lower than if you lease the same firm to con-duct the whole lifecycle of software improvement, from necessities accumulating thru improvement.
Example 2: the feature point price best for software transport is genuinely lesser than the characteristic factor rate wherein, besides the software program, numerous papers need to be delive-pink (subproducts) as : UML models, person’s guide, on-line helpdesk, prototypes, take a look at plans and cases, etc.
Example 3: Nowadays the range of to be had technologies for growing systems is huge, and each you'll directly have an impact on within the productivity (both undoubtedly or nega-tively) of the paintings to be finished. Thus it's far quite common within the market to have differentia-tion of $/FP regarding the technological platform (mainframe, internet, purchaser-server, and so on) and/or programming language (COBOL, C, Java,. Net, and so on).
Example 4: Function Point Analysis, in keeping with the IFPUG popular, measures the upkeep ignoring the scale of the protection that the characteristic will go through. Usually, the attempt to preserve a feature has a tendency to be decrease than to expand it. Thus, there can be a feature factor fee differentiation in development tasks for brand new, modified and deleted capabilities.
In summary, there is not one charge for a function factor and additionally there is no public and up to date charge listing available, where the feature point fee could be seen. Also because this statistics is considered proprietary or strategic for most organizations. But it is viable to obtain price statistics from authorities contracts through a rese-arch on the biddings that occurred in the beyond, via the reputable brazilian gazette or without delay with the authorities organanization.
Another opportunity to get this charge listing is the usage of companies that keep the histori-cal statistics of software program initiatives (e.G. ISBSG — www.Isbsg.Org) and offer a delivery rate indi-cators conversion (H/PF) to charge ($/FP). But even if we should get a listing of the $/FP price, the version in numbers is so vast that it is simple to discover a variety of values whose variation between minimal and maximum can be up to ten instances, as an example $ one hundred/FP to $ 1.000/FP.
For a more sensible fee information (or cost) of the FP, it is better to derive this from tasks that have already been undertaken. For tasks already finished, informa-tion that is genuinely to be had is how a whole lot become paid or charged for every challenge and what activities were blanketed. If the projects practical length (FP) isn't to be had, it is able to be attained via a dimension or an estimate, simply by reviewing the require-ments. Having the charge of the challenge and its length in characteristic factors, the rate per func-tion point ($/FP) can be attained. However, it's far probable that your business enterprise undertakes tasks of various kinds. In this example, an analysis of the $/FP must be completed for each category of initiatives, due to the fact a single price factor is rarely representative for projects of different types.
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Question 12. Is It Possible To Apply The Function Point Analysis (fpa) On Tasks That Are Not Organized As Projects?
In wellknown, this kind of work includes a very constrained scope. As a result, it's miles difficult to establish a relationship among the useful length and others metrics including attempt, time and fee. However, it´s crucial to take into account that Function Point Analysis (FPA) isn't actually a tool for generating estimates, used in assignment making plans. The nature of the paintings involved on this query is characterised no longer as a venture, but as a continuous operation.
Take as an example the structures protection with estimated effort as much as two hundred hours. Separately, the sizing of orders that represent the necessities (no longer usually purposeful) object renovation may not have a linear relationship with the attempt involved for its fulfillment. However, taking into consideration the understanding with all the requests in a given time period, we will arrive at unique conclusions.
For instance, a given preservation request did not involve the addition, amendment or elimination of certain gadget features. In this situation, it's miles useless to understand that the primary-tenance useful length will have no function factors. But the machine that gives mainte-nance has a functional size. You can monitor the quantity of renovation hours according to feature points of this system. This trend enables to assess whether or now not it's time to replace this system with a brand new one.
Suppose that there is a procedure in this agency wherein, after the service order has been served via the maintenance group, the product goes via an approval procedure. The function set inside the approval can be scaled in terms of characteristic points. Likewise, the quantity of recognized defects in the process may be documented. Monitoring the interplay of those metrics — Function Point and Defects — at some point of a time period can convey out problems inside the maintenance process. Based on this trend it's far pos-sible to take actions to reduce this relation.
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Question thirteen. Two Functions, That Are Significantly Different In The Implementation Effort, Are Scaled With The Same Number Of Function Points. Doesn´t It?
Function Point measures the purposeful length of the software and no longer the attempt worried in its design and production. The better the linearity located among purposeful size and this effort (productivity), higher the practical value of the size acquired. The extra this relationship is linear, extra without difficulty different measures can be extrapolated from the useful size, as the fee and attempt, as an example.
If it’s looked at a micro stage, in assessing the dimensions of two unique transactions, honestly the ability deviation in derived productiveness is high, but as we expand our sample length, we realize that the extreme situations compensate themselves and, on average, we can study better linearity within the courting among effort and practical size.
Let’s think about a few alternative metrics to the function factor, evaluating the impact of these considerations on these metrics, as an instance, Lines Of Code. In the Organization as an entire, or maybe in a particular task, there are also situations where the counting of strains of code variety isn't directly related to the attempt concerned within the specification, documentation and trying out of the undertaking. In other phrases, there are two projects with dif-ferent first-rate necessities or accelerated demand in the specification, in which notwithstanding one being greater “complicated” and requiring greater development effort, the ensuing smooth-ware has fewer code strains than the alternative. Not to mention the alternative boundaries inherent within the LOC metric.
Question 14. Why Are There No Tools For Automatic Function Points Counting Of A System?
There are numerous software products that from a program version or its supply code, cal-culate its length in feature factors. However, comparisons between the outcomes produced with the aid of specific equipment for the equal system, regularly have an unacceptable variation. These numbers, additionally often vary significantly from a manual be counted.
The solution to this variation is in how these equipment calculate the quantity of function points. Some are based on documents, displays, reports and different elements to derive a num-ber. Although there is usually a direct courting among those objects and records functi-ons and transactions capabilities of Function Point Analysis (FPA), it should be remembe-pink that the technique measures handiest the logical functions of the machine. And those equipment have problems in differentiating common sense functions from bodily features. For instance, now not every file or desk from a program document corresponds to an internal logical record or external interface record. Or even an essential manner may be carried out thru a couple of displays. To do the dimension in a accurate way, the software ought to have sufficient intelligence to make this judgment. That is, this software might need to have the skill to read the program and interpret the consumer´s necessities. However, there may be no software with this synthetic intelligence.
Other equipment are primarily based at the backfiring approach, that is to derive the wide variety of characteristic factors from the program variety of traces of code, primarily based on a preceding relati-onship established between LOC and FP. However, this is a way that has been widely criticized, and whose application is confined.
There are software products to aid the technique of counting feature points that automate part of the technique, but the selection and evaluation of that ought to be consi-dered, stays as the duty of the human consumer who enters the statistics, and now not of the software program.
Question 15. What Is Backfiring?
This technique consists in deriving the range of feature points according to the application from its bodily size, measured in lines of code (LOC), using a regular conversion issue relying on the programming language. The concept has a whole lot attraction, since the counting of lines of code can be completed via automatic equipment and consequently, the number of feature factors can be derived without delay. For instance, using a conversion component of eighty LOC / FP for Java and having an utility written in eighty,000 strains of Java code, we get to 1,000 function factors for that equal software.
However, often, this approach has extensive errors whilst faced with a manual count number of characteristic points of an application. This is as it assumes a linear relationship between useful size (in characteristic points) and the physical size of the program (in strains of code), which are exclusive principles. Another element is that there's no consensus in the diverse agencies that submit those relationships. The numbers shown might also fluctuate as an awful lot as a hundred%.
When you have a advanced gadget scenario with a combination of programming languages, the difficulty is more complex.
Some of the reasons for this wide variation are: unique assumptions in defining what's a line of code, and initiatives databases with many one-of-a-kind functions. Hence the need to calibrate the conversion issue for the truth of the projects developed by means of the agency. However, to make this adjustment, there have to be a representative sample of initiatives developed by way of the company in a specific language and an experienced and qualified professional to interpret the consequences and recognize the motives for this viable distortion for this conversion factor.
Due to those elements, applying backfiring to reap the scale in feature factors from strains of code is a volatile technique and characterized through a huge margin of blunders. Hence, IFPUG highlights of their FAQ, that it can also be used (with caution) in legacy systems, where a manual rely is unworkable in exercise and accuracy isn't always a important thing. Some experts argue that backfiring is a brief and cheap manner to get the size in function points of an organisation applications portfolio. Others, argue that reasonably-priced comes out high priced: it's far higher to put money into a manual counting of characteristic points and feature reliability of these data, with repayment within the long term.
On the other hand, many models of software estimating such as COCOMO II, use as number one data their size in strains of code. In those instances, it is very frequently to do the other: get the variety of traces of code from the dimensions in characteristic points. This is because inside the early ranges of a software program venture, is simpler to estimate or degree its size in function factors than in traces of code. Even then, the above issues continue to be valid on backfiring.
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Question sixteen. What Does Functional Size Mean In Relation To The Iso/iec Standard?
Aiming to remedy the inconsistencies among numerous techniques bobbing up from the model of Function Point Analysis, proposed via Allan Albrecht, and to set up a greater rigorous method of measuring functional size, a set known as WG12 (Working Group 12) became shaped, difficulty to SC7 ( SubCommittee Seven) of JTC1 (Joint Technical Committee One) established by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in conjunction with the IEC (International Engineering Consortium).
As a end result of the work of WG12, the same old 14.143 became hooked up, that is split into five parts:
14143–1: Concepts Definition
14143–2: Conformity Assessment of Software Measurement Methods in Relation to ISO/ IEC 14.143–1
14143–three: Verification of a Functional Size Measurement Method
14143–4: Reference Model for Functional Size Measurement
14143–5: Determination of Functional Domains for use with Functional Size Measurement
ISO / IEC 14.143 turned into advanced to make certain that each one the purposeful length dimension techniques are based on similar standards and may be examined to make certain that they behave in addition and as predicted via a technique of measurement, depending at the purposeful domains that they are applied.
At the quit of 2002 the technique of Function Point Analysis, as described in model four.X of the IFPUG manual, was authorized (under the same old 20.926) as a Functional Size Measurement Method, adhering to ISO / IEC 14143.
Question 17. In Addition To The Ifpug Function Points, Are There Any Other Methods Of Functional Measurement?
Yes, there are 3 others standard methods of practical dimension:
NESMA — The affiliation of metrics from Netherlands has its own counting manual, presently at version 2.0, whose the first version in 1990 became primarily based on IFPUG manual. It makes use of the same philosophy, concepts, terms and regulations of IFPUG, with a few different tips. The dimension of a improvement undertaking or an utility produces consequences very similar under both techniques – IFPUG and NESMA. However, both agencies have one of a kind techniques to characteristic factor evaluation application in software program development tasks.
Mark II — was created by using Charles Symons in the mid80s. Its unfold has been hampered to start with because the approach changed into owned via KPMG representative for numerous years. Today is a public area metrics approach maintained by means of the United Kingdom Association of Metrics —UKSMA. It’s a way wich its software is confined to the UK.
COSMIC — In 1997 a set of researchers from the University of Quebec evolved a brand new technique for measuring purposeful realtime systems, referred to as Full Function Points (FFP). In 1998 a collection of experts in software program size constituted the COSMIC (Common Software Measurement International Consortium) so one can develop a new approach of measuring purposeful size based on the quality features of existing strategies and incorporating new ideas. This new method proposed in 2000, referred to as COSMICFFP, in exercise become a refinement of the FFP technique. It is not a method as extensive because the IFPUG, but there is plenty studies being performed in this technique.
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Question 18. What Are The First Steps Towards Implementation Of The Function Point Analysis (fpa) In My Organization?
The first step is to actually become aware of what are the dreams of the organization. Function Point Analysis can be used for several purposes: estimation of software program tasks, unit of contracts measurement, assist for satisfactory and productivity control, benchmarking and metrics software.
Each method has its unique peculiarities; but there are aspects commonplace to all them, highlighted underneath:
Gain the help of the enterprise’s route. Keep in mind that the effects of using Function Point Analysis inside the employer are not constantly on the spot and that the fulfillment of its use will rely upon the willpower and use of human and monetary resources, in addition to any program that specializes in processes development.
Take benefit of present opportunities inside the organization that could have some not unusual goals. Examples of those tasks are: ISO, Six Sigma, CMM, PMI, Balanced Scorecard. Taking those initiatives and understanding how to narrate (and show to sponsors) Function Point Analysis may additionally contribute to some of the corporation´s goals, and will make it simpler to accept.
Empower yourself. Knowing an appropriate approach is crucial. It’s awesome the wide variety of instances that Function Point Analysis has being implemented incorrectly, and that, continuously ends in failure. The reliable reference of the technique is the IFPUG — CPM (Counting Practices Manual). Interesting movements on this regard can be:
Hire a closed magnificence for the complete team worried, so you can alter the weight or precis of the route with the targets of the technique and the truth of the organization. In this situation, FATTO commonly holds a service package with one week duration: two days to teach the route Training Function Point Analysis; and three days for consulting the start of the procedure and mentoring at the software of the method in business enterprise’s realistic instances.
Sign up key human beings which can be involved inside the system in open Function Point classes. FATTO regularly teaches open publications in numerous cities in Brazil. See our course schedule for more information.
Set modest initial dreams. Start with a pilot venture in a simple system. Evaluate the outcomes, make changes, assessment the objectives and move on.
Be aware of technique limitations. There are domains where Function Point Analysis is is confined. For example, in structures optimization, the method is not appropriate for measuring elements with high algorithmic complexity.
In doubt, make an analogy with the square meter. In general, it's far enough to clear up the difficulty.
Seek help if necessary. An out of doors representative can keep away from pointless troubles, hasting the process, bringing experience and assisting to accurate the directions.
Do no longer examine apples with oranges. Comparisons need to only be made between projects that have similarities (development process, era platform, commercial enterprise region, and so on).
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Question 19. What Is The Initial Guidance For The Application Of Function Point Analysis (fpa) In Software Projects Estimations?
Besides the general considerations provided within the preceding publish, the subsequent are a few specific tips to use the feature factor in estimates.
Although some authors quote the usage of feature factors immediately to derive preliminary estimates of duration, defects and crew size, the most commonplace use is for effort estimation (typically quantity of hours).
The process to estimate effort is quite simple: Given a productivity (hours in line with feature factor) in a given development environment, certainly multiply it by the purposeful length of software to attain the favored estimate.
However, the key question is: which productiveness ought to be hired? Many people use market signs published by using various agencies. But a lot of those people are frustrated with the final results.
The answer is: there are not any magic numbers. The productivity to be employed is specific to every employer and no longer a market average. It should reflect the truth of the development process of the organisation in a selected context: development tool, commercial enterprise area or era platform.
To attain its own numbers, the enterprise may additionally use the statistics from preceding projects and recover facts inclusive of attempt and length in characteristic factors. Grouping comparable tasks, it's miles possible to acquire a dependable indicator of productivity.
Question 20. What Is The Initial Guidance For The Application Of Function Point Analysis (fpa) In Systems Development Contracts?
Besides the general issues supplied in previous posts, below are presented some specific pointers for the usage of characteristic factors inside the 3 primary models used for hiring: ManHour, Global Fixed Price and Unit Price.
In case the contracting model used is that of manhour, where the provider remuneration isn't always based totally on offered consequences, yet in the amount of work hours in a longtime duration, FPA can be used, for example, for tracking productivity for the team. To achieve this, simply degree the result records (characteristic factors) and the attempt facts (hours) together and make reviews regarding both portions of information.
When hiring is based totally on international fixed price, the Function Point Analysis (FPA) can be used as a normalization component of charge with a view to ensure that the amount charged for extra capability not provided, or in the course of the maintenance section, is constant with the quantity charged at the time that the provider become employed.
The challenge’s size is measured in characteristic points and, from the overall amount charged through the dealer for the task, the cost of the function point is calculated. The new proposals are measured concerning its size after which the fee of the function factor to acquire the quantity of recent capabilities is carried out . Then this value can be as compared to the cost proposed by the provider.
However, the version that may better stability the deficiencies in hiring manhours and the global fixed fee is primarily based on unit charge (feature factors). If the dealer offers a low productiveness, he'll not be paid for the greater time ate up. Otherwise they will incur extra profit in regards to the provider furnished. If there is an growth in the scope of carrier, demanding negotiations will no longer be required to set up the cost for the extra carrier.
In this mode, an vital issue is to correctly define the fee of the characteristic point, as we will see in this publish.
In any of the kinds of contracts followed, we have to be careful with interest conflicts: the measurement of carrier in characteristic points need to in no way be carried out only by using the provider, as it may be paid exactly by way of the measuring result! You can take a look at this undesirable exercise in some organizations (which includes authorities). Internal body of workers may be used to carry out the measurement, or worst case scenario, validate the measurements made via sampling. Another alternative is to lease an outdoor company for this provider.
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Question 21. In What Situations Can Be Interesting To Outsource The Function Points Counting?
The assessment made to outsource the function factor counting services entails essentially the identical questions to outsource any other pastime. Specific conditions are highlighted beneath where the outsourcing can be favorable to the contracting organization:
In the initial period of implementation of the technique in the organization, the counting of a few projects by means of an experienced professional with the shadowing through the client group can haste the method and also help in absorption of realistic information by means of the group. Its a form of mentoring of sorts.
An experienced expert has extra agility inside the counting manner. If the organization does no longer have all and sundry with this profile and while the counting scope is simply too big and the time to do it's miles restricted, it is able to be useful to lease an outdoor professional in counting. This might be done with interaction with a professional from in the employer that knows the structures to remember.
When the counting desires are sporadic, the costbenefit to educate a professional inhome and keep him up to date may be disadvantageous in regards to hiring an skilled expert.
When the function factor counting is a systematic need, is essential to have internal specialists trained for the venture. In this situation, outsourcing can be convenient for the duration of a height call for for this interest.
When it's miles vital that the counting should be done (or audited) with the aid of an authorized expert (CFPS).
FATTO has a group of certified professionals that can assist your business enterprise not most effective inside the process of function point counting , however also in the correct utility of the Function Point Analysis (FPA) on estimates, the dimension program and contracting software. Please contact us for more information.
Question 22. What Are The Use Case Points?
Until a few years ago (early 90s) there has been a fake perception that Function Point Analysis (FPA) was no longer ok to measure objectoriented structures. Those who shared this concept, in practice, don´t honestly recognize Function Point Analysis.
With the unfold of production and design of objectoriented structures, there has been additionally a exchange within the way wherein specifying and modeling structures was carried out. The UML and Use Cases quickly have become enterprise wellknown of software program.
Within this context, in 1993 Gustav Karner proposed the technique of the Use Case Points (based on Function Point Analysis) in an educational article with a view of estimating assets for software program tasks using objectoriented development and the use of the Objectory technique.
The PCU dimension method is summarized in:
1 — Count the Actors and identify their complexity
2 — Count the Use Cases and identify their complexity
3 — Calculate the unadjusted PCU
4 — Determine the Technical Complexity Factor
5 — Determine the Environmental Complexity Factor
6 — Calculate the adjusted PCU
With the results of these measurements and understanding the average productiveness of the company to provide a PCU, the full attempt for the venture may be predicted.
Question 23. What Kind Of Software Can Be Measured By Function Points?
FPA is a way to measure the functionalities given by using a software to the customers; and this size is always made on an external attitude, the users’ attitude. However, it's miles vital to say that the concept of person for FPA isn't only the one of the enduser of the software. The person for the FPA is any individual or issue that interacts with the software at any time. In other phrases, the consumer for FPA can be both the person performing as enduser to the software and every other software program that uses the offerings of the software program in evaluation.
Considering that each and any software exists to provide one or greater services (features) to a person (individual or factor); it's miles concluded that every and any software may be measured with the aid of Function Points.
A commonplace mistake for beginners with FPA is to simplest consider the endusers´point of view. In this situation a few varieties of software can be in part (or absolutely) “invisible” to this user. Then they mistakenly conclude that FPA does no longer paintings for that type of software. The maximum not unusual is for the person to study the concepts of the FPA implemented to systems with monitors and reviews. However, whilst this individual faces a few software area which do no longer have screens, like batch processing, middlewares, primary softwares, it's far herbal to have some difficulties on measuring it.
Let’s believe that the purpose changed into to measure a printer’s motive force. Well, there may be no enduser (person) for this form of software program. In this attitude, the printer’s driver is invisible to the enduser. However it exists to offer offerings to someone; in this situation, the working machine. Thus, reading the printer’s motive force within the attitude of the running machine, it's miles possible to peer capabilities, for example: to start the the printer, tell the general scenario of the device, eject a sheet of paper, print, alert the extent of the ink, etc...
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Question 24. Can Fpa Be Used To Produce Estimates For Acceptance And System Testing?
In some articles, we frequently face many distorted statements and questions concerning the approach of feature factor analysis, which does no longer display whatever except a lack of awareness about the issue. Who has not heard the fake declaration “characteristic point analysis doesn’t serve to degree objectoriented systems”?
More currently, with the consolidation of the UML as the same old marketplace language for evaluation and objectoriented layout, every other frequent fake declare is that the characteristic point analysis isn't meant to degree systems whose requirements were expressed consistent with specs of use cases. A unique discussion of this trouble changed into presented in the March 2004 Bulletin.
Since the late ninety’s a check management approach that originated in Holland, called “TMap — Test Management Approach” is gaining traction, pushed through the wave of process development tasks primarily based on fine standards which include ISO and CMM. Its implementation is supported by means of a check estimation technique referred to as Test Point Analysis (TPA) which, in flip, is primarily based on Function Point Analysis (FPA).
TPA is used especially to estimate the attempt requiredin the execution of reputation and machine testing. For this, the TPA considers applicable, except the practical size determined by characteristic factors, two different factors: the checking out method and the productivity. Even while the element is “length”, it adds greater elements which have extra affect at the attempt than in particular on functional size, as algorithmic complexity, degree of integration with different functions and useful uniformity.
Although it is a constant and useful method for increasing the fine of the technique and software product, TPA preaches one extra fuzzy concept at the evaluation of function points when it says that this can't be used to estimate the attempt in activities concerning acceptance and machine checking out. Nevertheless , which means that the Function Point Analysis (FPA) considers the particularities of the improvement procedure whilst making use of the method of counting. Which isn't always proper.
The result of TPA software is measured in a unit of effort (hours), unlike the characteristic factor analysis, which measures the functional length of software task. Thus, as certainly does not at once measure the attempt used in the checks, the FPA additionally does not degree the attempt used within the analysis section, layout or construction of the software. Its major function is to measure the functionality brought with the aid of the software program challenge. However, feature factors can be used perfectly nicely as an enter to a procedure of effort estimation of different tiers of development, as mentioned inside the January 2004 Bulletin.
The biggest benefit of TPA is being able to accumulate, in a scientific way, the elements that have an effect on the effort of a specific stage of the development process, producing extra correct effects.
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Question 25. What Does The Term “user” Mean In Terms Of Function Point Analysis (fpa)?
When it comes to the facts era vicinity the time period “user” is generally regarding the person who uses or interacts with software.
Being that Function Point Analysis (FPA) is a general technique for measuring software program from the person’s factor of view, on this context, the term “consumer” has a broader that means. According to the Counting Practices Manual, a consumer is any man or woman or thing that communicates or interacts with the software at any time. That is, beyond one man or woman, a user can be a collection of human beings who've a selected role throughout their interplay with the software, the department manager, some other software program or gadget. And for the Function Point Analysis (FPA), interacting with the software program approach sending statistics to the application or receiving statistics from it.
It should be referred to that this definition of user has a meaning very close to the idea of an actor in a use case: any individual or aspect that interacts with the machine and expects an observable fee result produced by executing one or extra instances of use.
Taking this extensively defined consumer idea into consideration, at some point of a function factor depend, it's miles appropriate to examine the set of possible customers whose imaginative and prescient higher represents the capabilities that the application provides. For instance, an ATM software has the following customers: the financial institution purchaser, the enterprise authentic, the branch manager. Base the matter of this application most effective from the factor of view of the end purchaser and the financial institution’s selfservice user is to have a confined view of the utility. Also It is critical to consider the view of the consumer who specifies the requirements and business regulations, in this example, the branch supervisor.
Question 26. How Does Function Point Analysis (fpa) Define The Term “software”?
In the information era discipline in wellknown, the term “utility” is used to employ an executable software that meets a hard and fast of specific objectives or one goal for the customers. As classical example that we will quote is the Windows Calculator, Word, and many others.
Developers, in turn, generally tend to decide the scope of applications underneath the bodily segmentation of the software. Thus, a unmarried set of related features is separate in keeping with the subsequent technological troubles:
The bodily implementation strategies. For example, batch or on-line performed features
The bodily platform on which subsets of functions live. For instance, mainframe or PC (low deck)
The architectures under which the packages are designed. For instance, laptop, clientserver, internet, or 3tier.
On Function Point Analysis (FPA) , an application is defined in step with the person’s view and according to enterprise concerns and not to technical additives. According to the Counting Practices Manual (CPM), an application is a cohesive set of statistics and automated strategies that help a enterprise goal, which may include one or more components, modules or subsystems. Often, the term “software” is used as a synonym for machine, utility device or facts gadget.
For the function factors evaluation the appropriate expertise of the term and, in flip, the best identification of an application (enclosed via its boundary) is the basis for the steady use of the method, averting oversizing or undersizing during the counts.
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Question 27. What Are The Objectives Of The Ifpug’s Counting Practices Manual (cpm)?
The Counting Practices Manual CPM, of the IFPUG has the subsequent goals:
Provide a clean and precise description on the way to count number feature points.
Ensure that the counts are consistent with the practices of counting reached via IFPUGaffiliated members.
Provide steerage on a way to perform characteristic factors counts based on artifacts of the techniques and methodologies normally used in software improvement.
Provide a not unusual expertise so that developers of tools provide automatic suppport to the function points counting.
Be compliant to the ISO / IEC 14143–1 Measurement of functional software program.
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Question 28. What Tools Are Suitable For Support And/or Automate The Use Of Function Point Analysis (fpa)?
The first point to note on this problem is that there aren't any gear available that routinely remember feature factors reliably. However there are tools available that could aid and in part automate the technique of characteristic factor counts and additionally to shop and control the outcomes of the counts.
The simplest device to be used to report a characteristic point rely is a spread sheet. In the “assets” segment of our internet site, there's a free and formatted spreadsheet for function factor counts available for download. Despite being the first and best tool to be used by many experts, its use begins to be impractical because the variety of counts will increase. The control of the rely repository is typically manual, and with the increasing quantity of information, the mission turns into high priced.
When the enterprise realizes that the spreadsheet now not meets it needs, a natural route of action is to search equipment with extra abilities on the market. The IFPUG has a certification method for the equipment to guide the feature point counts. The list of tools presently certified may be considered here: http://www.Ifpug.Org/?Page_id=316. According to this manner, the gear may be categorised into three categories:
Type 1: The consumer does the function factors remember manually and the software provides functionalities for information collection and calculations.
Type 2: The software affords the functionalities for statistics collection and calculations, and the person and the machine do the interactive function factors count number, using questions submitted through the system and movements being taken mechanically depending on the answers furnished.
Type 3: The software program automatically produces a function factor count using numerous sources of information consisting of the database software, the software itself and artifacts of the development tools. The user can enter the records interactively, but his involvement is minimum at some stage in the be counted. It is vital to notice that there aren't any such equipment licensed.
Although there are numerous options of gear in the marketplace to guide the usage of characteristic points, many organizations select to broaden an inhouse device included with its systems of inner control. Some reasons for this may be:
The cost to develop an internal answer is less than the price of acquisition and preservation of packages available on the marke.
Lack of nearby assist for the answer, because of the fact that maximum gear available on the market are foreign
Needs to integrate with internal structures
Question 29. Is The Size Of A Software’s Unadjusted Function Points Determinant For The Specification Of The Hardware Needed For Its Execution? Why?
When it involves hardware requirements for the execution surroundings of a particular software, the point of interest of the problem is at the technical or pleasant necessities, as processing electricity, quantity and transaction facts, number of customers, protection, and so on… The useful requirements do not affect something on this regard. Therefore, there is no direct courting between the size of a software in feature factors (whether or not it’s adjusted or no longer) with the important hardware required for its implementation.
But the adjustment element, analyzed by itself from the functional size, includes many popular system features (Distributed Processing, Performance, Heavily Used Configuration, Volume Transaction) that would help in the definition of the hardware requirements of a software program, however it'd be an insufficient evaluation to outline the hardware.
Question 30. Is It Possible To Apply Function Point Analysis (fpa) For System Maintenance Projects?
Yes, but now not all the software maintenances are likely to be measured with Function Point Analysis (FPA). Only the maintenances that alternate the software purposeful requirements may be measured with the aid of the Function Point Analysis (FPA), in this situation IFPUG makes use of the term “development” in place of “upkeep”, exactly to make the factor that the development isn't always any form of maintenance. In IFPUG’s idea, the development measures all the features with a purpose to be added, modified or excluded from the application, as well as eventual capabilities of records conversion.
Maintenance for correction of defects or to keep only nonfunctional requirements are not measured with the aid of Function Point Analysis (FPA).