Question 1. Explain Landing Zones And Their Technologies?
When a hard disk is functioning commonly the read write head without a doubt fly`s over the platter with out making any touch.
These days to save you the pinnacle from touching the platter the pinnacle are physically moved ( parked) to important regions additionally referred to as touchdown zones to save you facts loss.
The touchdown zones are usually regions in which no facts is stored.
Another technique is to leave the heads suspended in air so that they never are available contact with the platter floor.
In legacy gadgets the heads could not be automatically landed and in order to save you them from touching the platter the person had to run packages manually to park the heads.
Question 2. Explain The Different Ways Of Hard Drive Failure?
A tough drive may additionally fail due to a couple of reasons. Some of the not unusual reasons are:
Bearing and motor failure
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Question three. What Is Head Crash?
This is caused whilst the examine / write head comes in contact with the platter. This can motive the location in which it has are available in touch to lose information.
Question 4. What Is Bad Sectors?
The platter in a tough drive is split into minute areas known as sectors. Sometime sure sectors may come to be defective, this does not affect the entire power.
Question five. What Is Stiction?
Sometimes the top of the disk isn't capable of take off, it tends to stick to its role. This phenomenon is called stiction.
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Question 6. What Is Bearing And Motor Failure?
After prolonged utilization the hard disks cars or bearing generally tend to worn out for this reason no longer permitting ordinary disk performance.
Question 7. What Is Circuit Failure?
The hard disk come to be inoperable if any of its circuitry malfunctions.
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Question eight. Explain Power Consumption Statistics Of The Hard Disks?
These days power consumption of electrical devices has come to be a top significance as portability and overall performance significantly relies upon on a gadgets consumption.
Power intake of a hard disk at once affects: Drive age, disk failure rates, temperatures and so on.
Smaller drives eat much less energy compared to large drives. The disks eat most power all through starting up, also known as spin up.
Spin up and spin down is at once managed with the aid of the SCSI controller on such drives.
Question nine. Explain The Different Types Of Disk Interfaces Used In Computers?
There are diverse interfaces through which tough disks hook up with the pc.
Legacy Bit Serial Interfaces: They are the oldest shape of interfaces which used cables to connect the disk to a controller. One cable become used for data whereas the alternative is used for manipulate. In addition to the above cables a strength cable turned into additionally required to provide electricity to the disk.
Modern Bit Serial Interfaces: In these types of interfaces the disk is hooked up to a number bus interface adapter the usage of a single cable. In addition to this cable a power cable is likewise used to electricity the force. Some of the modern bit serial interfaces are as follows: Fibre Channel, Serial ATA and SCSI.
World Serial interfaces: They are similar to trendy bit interfaces, these interfaces make use of a cable for information and manage. Some of the commonplace international interfaces are as follows: IDE, EIDE, SCSI and many others.
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Question 10. Explain The Purpose Of Interleave?
Interleave is the procedure through which gaps are located between two sectors at the platter of a disk.
This became performed in earlier days while the computers have been no longer brief enough to read continuous streams of facts.
Without interleaving there would be no gaps among the sectors and statistics might arrive right away before the reading unit is prepared. Due to this to study the identical information a whole rotation of the disk might be required again.
The interleaving ratio become now not fixed and can be set through the end user depending on their system specifications. Nowadays the ratio of interleaving is 1:1 i.E. No interleaving is used.
Question 11. What You Understand By Access Time. Explain Different Types Of Timings In A Hard Disk Drive?
The get entry to time is the time taken by the disk to read information on it and it is without delay related to the character of the platter speeds and the moving heads.
Seek time: This time exact the time taken via the head to reach the song where the desired / goal records is to be had.
Rotational Latency: This latency happens while the required information by means of the pc remains no longer underneath the top so the meeting will need to pass their.
The get entry to time of the hdd can be advanced by way of giving more pace within the rotation of the platter.
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Question 12. Explain The Various Form Factors In Which The Hard Disks Are Available?
8 inch: This become one of the first tough disks to be developed, It`s length turned into identical as that of the 8 inch floppy drives.
5.25 inch: Comparatively smaller than 8" this form of drive become first time supplied by using Segate.
Three.5 inch: This is the maximum not unusual size of the pressure that is used in recent times in non-public computers.
2.Five Inch: This kind of hard drives is typically used inner portable devices such as laptops, music players and many others.
1.Eight Inch: This turned into a unprecedented size and became broadly speaking intended to be utilized by audio gamers and sub notebooks.
1 Inch: This kind of drives had been evolved to house the entire disk inner a CF II Slot.
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Question 13. What You Understand By Formatting In Reference To Hard Disks?
Generally the controller determines how the hard disk is presented to the host gadget.
In widespread the modern SATA and SAS present themselves as contiguous set of logical blocks, They are commonly 512 bytes lengthy.
Formatting may be categorized into types excessive stage and occasional level formatting.
The technique via which the logical blocks are initialized at the physical platters is called low degree formatting. This is usually performed during manufacturing itself.
Once the low level formatting is performed then excessive degree formatting is accomplished to write the document machine shape into the particular logical blocks.
Question 14. Which Errors Can Be Handled By Hard Disks?
There are various ways wherein current tough disks deal with errors.
Most hard disks use ECC`s error correcting codes mostly the Reed-Solomon mistakes correction techniques.
The mistakes checking codes generally employ the use of complex algorithms mathematically derived to save more bits. These bits are used to correct diverse errors.
Nowadays most of the drives support LDPC or the low density parity take a look at codes.
The LDPC permits performance to reach the Shannon restrict and additionally result in the very best storage ability drives.
Question 15. How Data Is Read And Written On A Hard Disk?
In a difficult disk records / statistics is written on the rotating platters by using the examine and write heads.
The heads aren't in actual touch with the disk they're truly barely above the magnetic floor of the platter.
The heads detects the magnetization of the platter proper beneath them. The actuator arm aids the heads in protecting the platter place.
The surface is split into micro sized areas called magnetic domains. Every magnetic area has a magnetic dipole which has their personal discipline.
The write heads read/write by magnetizing the area. It generates a robust magnetic subject for this purpose.
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Question sixteen. Explain Structure Of A Hard Drive?
Hard disks in them include various components which includes Platter, Spindle, Actuator, power connector, Jumper block, IDE connector and so forth.
In the inner of a hard disk there is the spindle that is used to maintain circular magnetic disks also known as platters. They are usually made of a non magnetic fabric, ( aluminum alloy).
These platters are spun at speeds in extra of 4000 RPM, nowadays 7200 RPM based difficult disks are not unusual sufficient.
The read and write heads paintings on those spinning platters to study and write information. They are managed by means of an actuator arm that stops any error.
Question 17. What You Understand By A Hard Disk And How Are They Classified?
Hard drives are typically gadgets that can be used for storing facts and to retrieve it. They are composed of 1 or more than one rigid disc that unexpectedly rotates.
The discs are magnetically covered and use magnetic heads to examine and write records on them.
They are also called the secondary storage devices used to keep large amounts of statistics.
They can be categorized into the subsequent kinds : Non-Volatile, Digital, Magnetic or facts garage devices.
Hard drives had been dominant when you consider that the usage of personal computer systems as they permit large amounts of facts to be stored at low charges and high reliability.
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Question 18. Explain What Is Meant By Cross-compiler?
A program runs on one machine and executes on every other is referred to as as pass-compiler
Cross compiler packages are written for embedded structures(normally) however run on everyday PCs to gauge their overall performance. Later on, they may be ported to embedded systems.
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Question 19. Explain Which Segment Is Used To Store Interrupt And Subroutine Return Address Registers?
Stack Segment in phase sign in is used to save interrupt and subroutine return cope with registers.
Question 20. Explain How Many Logical Drives Is It Possible To Fit Onto A Physical Disk?
Maximum of 24 logical drives. The prolonged partition can handiest have 23 logical drives.
Max of 24 partition from "c" to "z"
number one 4
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Question 21. What Is Mbr Located On The Disk?
Main Boot Record is located in region 0, tune 0, head 0, cylinder zero of the primary lively partition.
Quarter 0, head zero, cylinder 0,
Question 22. Explain If You Are Getting In Disc Boot Error. At Initial Stage What You Need 2 Check. Please Detail In Steps?
Enter into the BIOS and check whether your hard disk force is set as first boot device,if not then set it as first boot device in the boot device precedence.
If the troubles exists,then you need to boot the machine with a brand new operating machine cd and set up a brand new one.
Side through side take a look at the RAM also for the connection.
Question 23. Explain Which Is The Tool Used To Connect The User And The Computer?
Interpreter is the tool used to connect the person and the tool. And the operating system is used to attach the consumer and laptop.
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Question 24. Explain And Give Example For Non-maskable Interrupts?
Trap is called Non-Maskable interrupts, that's utilized in emergency circumstance.
This has the highest precedence
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Question 25. Which Logic Calculations Are Done In Which Type Of Registers?
Accumulator is the sign in in which Arithmetic and Logic calculations are done.
Question 26. Explain Sim And Rim Instructions?
SIM is Set Interrupt Mask. Used to masks the hardware interrupts. RIM is Read Interrupt Mask. Used to check whether the interrupt is Masked or not.
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Question 27. What Is Hard Drive (hd)?
A hard disk force (HDD) is a non-risky, random get admission to device for virtual data. It capabilities rotating inflexible platters on a motor-pushed spindle inside a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by examine/write heads that glide on a film of air above the platters.
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