Question 1. What Is Hart?
The HART Communication Protocol (HART = Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) defines a bi-directional field verbal exchange protocol preferred for tool, manipulate and automation structures. Actually, it’s no longer only a wellknown, however the worldwide standard for sending and receiving digital data throughout analog wires between smart gadgets and host systems. A host can be any software program software from technician’s handheld tool or pc to a plant’s technique control, asset management, protection or other system the usage of any manipulate platform.
Question 2. Why Use Hart Technology?
There are numerous reasons for using HART Communication to decorate the statistics waft among hosts and area devices. These encompass device (re)configuration, diagnosing and troubleshooting units, studying values of additional measurements provided with the aid of the device, and lots greater. It can offer many blessings, which include gambling a major role in enhancing plant operations, growing asset availability, reducing maintenance costs and assisting in regulatory compliance. In most of these roles, HART technology has verified to be smooth to apply and really dependable.
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Question 3. How Does Hart Communication Work?
The HART Protocol gives two simultaneous conversation channels on the equal wire: four-20mA “modern loop” analog and a HART virtual sign. While the analog signal maintains to provide primary values to and from subject contraptions, the digital signal gives extra device facts. This is a totally strong method with roots within the Bell 202 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) standard, which at the start superimposed a digital verbal exchange sign “on top of” the four-20mA cutting-edge loop to deliver Caller ID era to the sphere of telephony.
Question four. What Is A Device Description?
Key to the HART Protocol’s ability to “get information out of the sphere tool” is a facts document known as a Device Description (DD). This describes the functions and functions of a tool, inclusive of the shape and content of menus and photo presentations to be presented in host computers or handheld devices. The DD is written in conformance with a Device Description Language within the protocol. The HART Communication Foundation manages a library of Manufacturer Device Descriptions, and presents normal updates to which any Foundation member can subscribe. DD’s are available for download at the HART Communication Foundation website. The DD isn't required for communication with HART-enabled gadgets. It is an elective enabling detail of HART technology that maximum tool and host providers assist in an effort to provide HART Users the brought value of multi-seller interoperability.
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Question 5. How Does A Hart Assist Commissioning And Configuration?
HART generation has been proven to significantly lessen the time required to completely fee a community (loop). For instance. Gadgets can be greater quick proven because the tool precise and alertness statistics are loaded into contraptions that could fast be verified via the host manage machine. Commissioning is in addition streamlined by connecting a PC configuration to each HART communique loop on line both thru the control gadget or a multiplexing I/O gadget. This gets rid of the need to move the configuration tool from one termination point to the subsequent while commissioning devices on the network. Leading PC configuration programs additionally consist of a loop-test feature which ensures proper connections, and as-installed record-maintaining capabilities for lengthy-time period documentation and preservation.
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Question 6. How To Hart Communication Data?
There are many approaches to combine HART facts and leverage the intelligence for your clever field devices. Point-to-Point Integration is the most not unusual method, allowing you to interrogate a tool the usage of a far off host by way of connecting anywhere on the contemporary loop. The subsequent step is HART-to-Analog Integration, which replaces analog control additives with HART protocol sign extractors to convert actual-time device information four-20 mA signals for input into an existing analog manipulate device. Next, HART -plus – Analog Integration employs HART technology multiplexers to update existing I/O termination panels. The analog sign keeps on to the manipulate machine, at the same time as HART verbal exchange statistics is sent to a device/asset control device to offer non-stop diagnostics. Finally, Full HART Integration improvements the field or faraway I/O system for full, bidirectional communication between area instrumentation and the manage gadget. The end result is absolutely automatic, actual-time detection of issues with gadgets or connections for greater rapid corrective action.
Question 7. What Is The Main Difference Between Dtm And Dd Configuration Methods?
The FDT popular helps each DD and DTM configuration techniques.
The DD (Device Description) Language lets in a device to be described using a text like language. This is then compiled right into a DD record this is specific for every HART, FF, and Profibus network. The host gadget interprets the compiled DD file and determines how a tool appears within the packages..
While the DD approach is a simple way to describe the device, it's miles on the identical time confined within the functions it offers.
The DTM technique of representing a device is steady in any FDT Frame software. The tool provider is on top of things of the visualization, capability and superior capabilities.
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Question eight. What Is The Fdt Technology?
FDT Technology standardizes the verbal exchange interface among field devices and manipulate structures or engineering and asset management tools. Key functions are its independence from the communication protocol and the software program environment of either the device or the host gadget. FDT Technology permits any tool to be accessed from any host through any protocol.
Question nine. What Is The Fdt Interface?
The FDT interface specification describes the standardized statistics change among gadgets and manage systems or engineering and asset control equipment. Devices may be configured, operated, and maintained through the standardized consumer interfaces included in an FDT Frame Application.
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Question 10. What Is A Device Type Manager (dtm)?
A Device Type Manager (DTM) is a part of the FDT trendy that could be a software element for a device that consists of the device-specific facts, features and good judgment factors. DTMs can attain from a easy graphical user interface for placing tool parameters up to a rather state-of-the-art utility that, for example, can carry out complicated calculations for diagnostics and maintenance purposes or can put into effect arbitrarily complex business logics for tool calibration.
The DTM additionally carries FDT-compliant interfaces to allow communique with the linked system or tool. DTMs are labeled as Device DTMs, which constitute a subject device, and CommDTMs, which constitute communique additives (gateways, far off I/Os, couplers, and so forth.).
A ordinary FDT based software can incorporate dozens, hundreds, or heaps of Device DTMs and CommDTMs from a spread of manufacturers to make up the system.
Question eleven. Which Communication Protocols Does Fdt Technology Support?
The FDT specification supports the verbal exchange protocols AS-interface, CAN open, CIP Annex Configuration, Control Net, Device Net, Ethernet/IP, FOUNDATION Fieldbus, HART, INTERBUS, IO Link, MODBUS SL/TCP, PROFIBUS DP/PA, and PROFINET I/O.
The FDT Group is open to destiny traits and market necessities and maintains to amplify its aid of latest protocols.
Due to the open nature of the usual, several device and host manufacturers have even introduced their own proprietary or legacy protocols to the usual to be used of their own packages.
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Question 12. Is Wireless Hart An International Standard?
YES, Wireless HART is a HART Communication Foundation general using the license-unfastened 2.4 GHz frequency band and is an incorporated part of HART 7 Specification. In addition it is also the sector’s first field communique International Standard (IEC 62591), a European Standard (EN62591), complies with EN 300328 and shortly to be a Chinese National Standard.
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Question thirteen. What The Main Benefits Are Of Wireless Hart?
Users file the primary advantage of choosing a wi-fi answer like Wireless HART is the low cost of adding an additional dimension to the gadget. This decreased fee consists of: engineering time, fewer drawings, decreased quantity of discipline paintings together with pulling cord and commissioning.
Question 14. Are Wireless Hart Devices Are Inter Operable?
One of the numerous advantages of using products that comply with an international general like IEC or IEEE is the warranty of interoperability. Interoperability is the ability of devices from one or greater suppliers to speak well together in an automation application with out the need of unique or proprietary software program. Interoperability is likewise ensured with the aid of a properly-confirmed trying out.
Question 15. What Network Topologies Does Wireless Hart Support?
Wireless HART lets in for basically three community topologies: Star or factor-to-factor, Mesh and a combination of Star + Mesh which utilizes the each community topologies. Each topology has advantages and disadvantages providing flexibility at the time of setup and commissioning.
A Mesh topology permits for in addition network distance and the capacity to regulate for changing verbal exchange paths. Compared to other wi-fi protocols, this functionality affords more reliability and versatility in addition to doing away with the associated cost and risk of installing and wiring spine routers during the plant.
A Star (factor-to-factor) topology allows a device to talk directly to the gateway while not having to path communications via any other device.
All Wireless HART gadgets can operate in a factor-to-factor topology if a mesh isn't favored.
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Question sixteen. How To Configure A Wireless Hart Network?
Wireless HART is a self-forming and self-organizing network. The person does not want to realize the info of the way the network operates. As long as the devices are inside range of the gateway or any other community device, the community is configured robotically.
The machine mechanically configures the network, scheduling communication among devices, managing message routes and monitoring community health.
The handiest consumer motion is to configure the network ID and be part of key into the person devices so as for them so one can join the community.
Question 17. How Wireless Hart Similar To 4-20ma Hart?
Wireless HART is HART with a wi-fi communication implementation. Wired or wi-fi, they paintings together to provide a standardized way to communicate manner measurements and diagnostics facts from a HART tool to a manage or asset control gadget.
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Question 18. Existing Hart Configuration Tools Can Be Used For Wireless Hart Also?
YES. Since Wireless HART is HART, all of the same old configuration gear can be used to configure a wireless HART device. This consists of hand-held and PC-based totally configuration tools.
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Question 19. Any Additional Parameters Required To Configure A Wireless Hart When Compared To Wired Hart Devices?
Yes – two additional parameters want to be set – the tool join key and the network I.D. These are set the usage of widespread HART configuration gear which includes a handheld device or a PC-based utility connected immediately to the device the use of a modem.
Question 20. Why Do We Use A Wired Connection To Configure The Join Key & Network Id In Wireless Hart?
Since customers demand a excessive level of facts and community protection, the join key and community I.D. Are by no means broadcasted across the community. However, if the community I.D. And be part of key are configured on the manufacturing facility a neighborhood wired connection isn't wished for device configuration. Once the device joins a community, the initial be part of key is modified.
Question 21. Wireless Hart Devices Always Require A Battery?
No. There are many strength alternatives which include; battery, power harvesting (such as solar), line or loop power and others.
Question 22. Wireless Hart Devices Use A Special Battery?
No. Battery powered Wireless HART gadgets typically use popular, lengthy-lasting excessive-power batteries as part of a energy module (battery p.C.) that is able to operate the device for prolonged durations of time depending at the application and the device update fee.
Devices can use off-the-shelf batteries and power options as do different wi-fi sensor network devices. Each provider will use what they determine to be the quality energy solution for his or her specific tool.
Certain batteries are advocated by exceptional providers which will get the longest time of operation out in their tool in harsh working situations. The specification requires the device to record battery existence providing early notification of a want to exchange or update the batteries long before a tool runs out of energy.
Question 23. Wireless Hart Devices Can Be Used For Control Applications?
Yes. Since there are different degrees of manage and give up-to-stop required response instances, the specific utility will determine if Wireless HART need to be used.
Question 24. What Are The Benefits Of Mesh Network Topology For Wireless Hart Devices?
The Wireless HART mesh topology has many blessings over big name topology making mesh the most sensible topology option:
Very robust: a couple of paths for optimum reliability below changing plant situations.
Network distance may be extended due to the fact the essential distance is now between gadgets in multiple hops, not between tool and the gateway.
Cost effective because a single gateway can cover a larger community vicinity.
Low danger deployment because gateway location may be extra flexible including being set up at the edge of the running unit the use of minimal strength and determination networking.
Flexibility and mobility due to the fact gadgets may be effortlessly delivered or moved within the community with out putting in and wiring backbone routers.
Incremental growth – additional devices can to be brought with large savings in deployment time and wiring charges as compared to standard wired installations.
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Question 25. Wireless Hart Devices In A Mesh Topology Have A Shorter Battery Life Than In A Star Topology?
Yes however little or no distinction. The biggest impact on battery existence is the replace charge and no longer the routing or use of a mesh topology.
Battery lifestyles is a function of dimension update prices, tool strength requirement (some sensor kinds devour more strength than others), battery capability and surroundings situations, and whether the device routes messages despatched by means of different devices within the mesh, Depending on its function in a mesh community, a device working as a router may additionally revel in a mild discount in battery life than a tool that does not route messages. Therefore, it's miles vital to properly evaluate the application to decide the pleasant network configuration thinking about all problems and to pick out gadgets with a appropriate battery life for the application.
The predicted battery lifestyles for a Wireless HART transmitter set for 1 minute updates can be 10 years, and that consists of relaying messages from neighboring transmitters in a mesh topology. Although mesh topology is the maximum common topology utilized in commercial flora, Wireless HART also helps the celebrity topology.
Question 26. Is Wireless Hart An Open Technology?
Yes. Products and systems from more than one providers interoperate.
Question 27. Is Wirelesshartt Ranges Shorter Than Other Ieee 802.14.Five Based Wireless Sensor Network Topologies?
No. Since Wireless HART makes use of the same radio as other IEEE 802.15.Four wireless sensor networks, the variety between devices is the equal. Any difference from one product to the subsequent depends at the sensitivity of the radio chip used internally and the antenna selection. Since mesh topology supports more than one hops, the overall community covers longer distance than different networks.
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Question 28. Can A Combination Of Wireless Protocols Be Used In A Wireless Hart Network?
No. Wireless HART is designed to communicate using the HART protocol. A Wireless HART network will allow best Wireless HART devices even supposing the alternative devices use the equal wi-fi radio for plenty motives including protection. With most people of all sensible smart devices hooked up world-huge being HART-enabled, Wireless HART is designed to offer a means of maximizing those hooked up assets and protecting the investment in education and tools. The output of the Wireless HART gateway varies relying at the provider but might also encompass Modbus, OPC, HART-IP or others.
Question 29. What Is A Wireless Hart Adapter?
There are extra than 35+ million 4-20 mA/HART gadgets in operation. For most of them, simplest the analog 4-20 mA signal is used in each day operation. The digital verbal exchange changed into handiest used for calibration and configuration at the time of commissioning. After that, HART frequently went unused due to the fact most legacy systems guide most effective 4-20 mA, with out HART conversation bypass-through.
By putting in a Wireless HART adapter on the 4-20 mA/HART transmitter, smart device control software can continuously monitor diagnostics to alert operators and technicians to failures that could translate into manner issues. That is, a WirelessHARTadapter can unharness the strength of four-20 mA/HART gadgets by way of speaking system variables and stranded information to tool monitoring and asset management applications.
The Wireless HART adapter connects to the 4-20mA / HART tool or anywhere on the four-20mA loop. The adapter may additionally communicate statistics from a unmarried HART-enabled device or multiple gadgets. The adapter may also be battery, loop or direct powered and might also provide the electricity to the device.
Question 30. Does Wireless Hart Communicate Both The Process Value (pv) And Device Configuration & Diagnostics?
Yes. All tool talents available in any HART-enabled device also are to be had the usage of Wireless HART. This consists of the PV and all other tool records.
Question 31. What Is The Transmission Distance Between Wireless Hart Devices?
The transmission distance between devices is typically 250 m the usage of a 0dB fashionable antenna. Longer distances may be possible the use of distinct antenna types.
Question 32. What Is Distance Covered By A Wireless Hart Network?
Wireless HART uses mesh topology which means every device is able to being a repeater capable of relaying statistics from dimension gadgets to the gateway. Therefore records can tour very lengthy distances by using “hopping” from one transmitter to the following until it reaches the gateway.
Question 33. Is Wireless Hart Is A Part Or Subset Of Ansi/isa100?
No. Wireless HART is an International Standard – IEC 62591 and no longer part of ANSI/ISA100.
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Question 34. Can Multiple Wireless Hart Networks Co-exists In One Plant?
Yes. A big plant can set up hundreds or maybe lots of Wireless HART gadgets. For big installations, use separate gateways for each technique unit or plant area, joined the usage of a HART-IP network over Ethernet or Wi-Fi. This totals as much as big numbers of gadgets, yet logically sub-divided in step with plant location and work obligations – similar to the DCS controllers are today.
Question 35. Are Redundant Gateways Available For Wireless Hart?
Yes. Redundant Wireless HART gateways are to be had from certain providers.
Question 36. Does Wireless Hart Supports Ip (internet Protocol) Addressing?
No. It turned into intentionally designed to now not use IP to make Wireless HART smooth to control. In addition, cyber security and the deployment of latest transmitters are simplified.
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Question 37. Is A Wireless Hart Data Encryption Key Change Manual Or Automatic?
Automatic. Always enabled, there is no on/off option. Wireless HART makes use of two encryption keys: a community key and a session key. The community key operates on the records hyperlink layer of the protocol and is used in verbal exchange hops between neighboring transmitter’s node-to-node. The session key operates at the network layer and is used cease-to-stop (over multiple hops), from the originating transmitter to gateway. The intermediate transmitters cannot decode the message. These keys are not seen through plant employees. The system periodically rotates those keys every few days, this happens robotically with out human intervention.
Question 38. Can Wireless Hart Co-exists With Wi-fi And Other Wireless Technologies?
YES. Wireless HART has several mechanisms to ensure coexistence with different wi-fi technologies. For example, IEEE 802.15.Four makes use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) modulation, channel hopping, channel black listing, and Clear Channel Assessment to limit the effect of interference from different wi-fi networks. To decrease interference onto different wi-fi networks, Wireless HART makes use of low energy radio and very short message bursts. Over 1 Billion hours of tested discipline operation have established that Wireless HART does co-exist with different wireless networks.
Question 39. Must All Devices On The Wireless Hart Network Share Same Join Key?
No. In Wireless HART, the be a part of key may be shared by way of all the devices or can be unique for every tool.