Question 1. Define Highway Engineering?
Highway engineering is an engineering subject branching from civil engineering that includes the planning, design, construction, operation, and protection of roads, bridges, and tunnels to ensure secure and powerful transportation of humans and items.
Question 2. What Is The History Of Highway Engineering?
History of toll road engineering : The records of highway enginnering gives us an concept approximately the roads of ancient instances. Roads in Rome had been constructed in a large scale and it radiated in lots of guidelines assisting them in army operations. Thus they are considered to be pioneers in street construction. In this phase we are able to see in detail about Ancient roads, Roman roads, British roads, French roads etc.
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Question 3. Explain About Ancient Roads?
Ancient Roads : The first mode of delivery became through foot. These human pathways could have been developed for precise functions main to camp web sites, meals, streams for ingesting water and so forth. The next major mode of transport became the usage of animals for transporting both men and substances. Since these loaded animals required greater horizontal and vertical clearances than the on foot guy, track approaches emerged. The invention of wheel in Mesopotamian civilization caused the improvement of animal drawn cars. Then it became important that the street floor must be capable of wearing more masses.
Thus roads with more difficult surfaces emerged. To offer good enough power to carry the wheels, the brand new approaches tended to follow the sunny drier facet of a path. These have brought about the improvement of foot-paths. After the discovery of wheel, animal drawn cars had been developed and the need for difficult surface avenue emerged. Traces of such difficult roads were received from various ancient civilization dated as vintage as 3500 BC. The earliest real file of avenue became found from Assyrian empire constructed about 1900 BC.
Question four. Explain Roman Roads?
The earliest huge scale road construction is attributed to Romans who constructed an in depth gadget of roads radiating in many directions from Rome. They have been a great achievement and supplied tour instances across Europe, Asia minor, and north Africa. Romans identified that the fundamentals of properly road production have been to offer proper drainage, proper cloth and accurate workmanship. Their roads had been very durable, and a few are still present. Roman roads have been always constructed on a company - formed subgrade bolstered where vital with wooden piles.
The roads were bordered on each sides through longitudinal drains. The subsequent step turned into the construction of the agger. This was a raised formation up to a 1 meter excessive and 15 m huge and turned into built with substances excavated for the duration of the side drain construction. This turned into then topped with a sand leveling course. The agger contributed substantially to moisture control inside the pavement. The pavement structure at the pinnacle of the agger varied substantially. In the case of heavy visitors, a floor course of huge 250 mm thick hexagonal flag stones were furnished. A traditional pass phase of roman avenue is given in Figure 1 The fundamental capabilities of the Roman roads are that they have been constructed instantly irrespective of gradient and used heavy foundation stones at the lowest. They mixed lime and volcanic puzzolana to make mortar and they delivered gravel to this mortar to make concrete. Thus concrete was a chief Roman street making innovation.
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Question 5. Explain French Roads?
The subsequent principal development in the road creation passed off at some point of the regime of Napoleon. The large contributions have been given with the aid of Tresaguet in 1764 and an ordinary move segment of this road is given in Figure 1. He advanced a cheaper approach of creation than the lavish and domestically unsuccessful revival of Roman practice.
The pavement used 2 hundred mm pieces of quarried stone of a more compact form and fashioned such that they had at the least one flat aspect which became placed on a compact formation. Smaller pieces of damaged stones have been then compacted into the areas between large stones to offer a stage surface. Finally the walking layer changed into made with a layer of 25 mm sized broken stone. All this shape become positioned in a trench with a view to preserve the running surface degree with the surrounding us of a facet.
This created fundamental drainage issues which had been counteracted by using making the floor as impervious as viable, cambering the surface and supplying deep aspect ditches. He gave an awful lot significance for drainage. He also enunciated the need for non-stop organized preservation, instead of intermittent upkeep if the roads were to be kept usable all instances. For this he divided the roads between villages into sections of such length that a whole street may be protected by way of maintenance guys living close by.
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Question 6. Explain British Roads?
The British government additionally gave significance to avenue production. The British engineer John Macadam introduced what can be considered because the first clinical street production method. Stone length turned into an vital element of Macadam recipe. By empirical remark of many roads,he came to realise that 250 mm layers of properly compacted damaged angular stone would provide the same energy and stiffness and a higher walking surface than an expensive pavement founded on huge stone blocks. Thus he added a cost-effective method of road production.
The mechanical interlock between the man or woman stone portions furnished energy and stiffness to the course. But the inter particle friction abraded the pointy interlocking faces and in part wreck the effectiveness of the direction. This effect turned into triumph over by introducing suitable excellent interstitial finer fabric to provide a properly-graded blend. Such mixes also proved less permeable and easier to compact.
Question 7. Explain Modern Roads?
The contemporary roads by using and massive follow Macadam's construction technique. Use of bituminous concrete and cement concrete are the most critical developments. Various superior and cost-powerful production technology are used. Development of new equipments help in the faster construction of roads. Many easily and domestically available materials are tested inside the laboratories after which applied on roads for making low-cost and sturdy pavements.
Scope of transportation system has developed very largely. Population of the us of a is increasing every day. The lifestyles fashion of humans started to trade. The want for journey to diverse locations at faster speeds also accelerated. This increasing demand led to the emergence of different modes of transportation like railways and tour with the aid of air. While the above improvement in public delivery sector became taking area,the improvement in private delivery was at a much quicker charge especially due to its blessings like accessibility, privateness, flexibility, comfort and comfort.
This caused the increase in vehicular visitors specifically in personal transport community. Thus avenue space to be had changed into becoming inadequate to satisfy the developing demand of traffic and congestion started out. In addition, possibilities for injuries also multiplied. This has brought about the accelerated attention closer to manipulate of motors so that the transport infrastructure become optimally used. Various control measures like traffic alerts, presenting roundabouts and medians, restricting the velocity of car at particular zones and so forth. Had been implemented.
With the advancement of higher roads and green manage, an increasing number of investments had been made in the street area in particular after the World wars. These have been big initiatives requiring big funding. For premiere utilization of budget, one should realize the journey sample and tour conduct. This has led to the emergence of transportation planning and call for management.
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Question eight. Explain The Highway Planning In India?
Highway making plans in India : Excavations inside the websites of Indus valley, Mohenjo-dero and Harappan civilizations found out the existence of planned roads in India as vintage as 2500-3500 BC. The Mauryan kings also constructed superb roads. Ancient books like Arthashastra written by way of Kautilya, a terrific administrator of the Mauryan instances, contained policies for regulating traffic, depths of roads for diverse functions, and punishments for obstructing site visitors.
During the time of Mughal period, roads in India have been significantly improved. Roads linking North-West and the Eastern areas thru gangetic plains had been constructed during this time.
After the autumn of the Mughals and at the start of British rule, many current roads have been improved. The creation of Grand-Trunk street connecting North and South is a main contribution of the British. However, the focal point turned into later shifted to railways, besides for feeder roads to important stations.
Question nine. Explain Jayakar Committee?
The first World warfare period and that right now following it observed a fast increase in motor shipping. So want for higher roads have become a necessity. For that, the Government of India appointed a committee called Road development Committee with Mr.M.R. Jayakar as the chairman. This committee got here to be called Jayakar committee.
Jayakar Committee : In 1927 Jayakar committee for Indian street development become appointed. The essential guidelines and the ensuing implementations had been:
Committee determined that the road development of the u . S . A . Has come to be past the capacity of nearby governments and cautioned that Central authorities should take the proper rate considering it as a be counted of countrywide interest.
They gave more pressure on long term making plans programme, for a length of twenty years (for this reason called twenty year plan) this is to formulate plans and put into effect those plans with within the next twenty years.
One of the recommendations became the maintaining of periodic avenue conferences to discuss about street construction and improvement. This paved the manner for the established order of a semi-professional technical body called Indian Road Congress (IRC) in 1934
The committee cautioned imposition of extra taxation on motor transport which incorporates duty on motor spirit, vehicle taxation, license charges for cars plying for hire. This led to the introduction of a improvement fund known as Central road fund in 1929. This fund changed into supposed for road development.
A dedicated research enterprise have to be constituted to carry out studies and development work. This resulted within the formation of Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) in 1950.
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Question 10. Explain About Nagpur Road Congress?
Nagpur avenue congress 1943 : The second World War saw a rapid growth in road visitors and this caused the deterioration within the situation of roads. To speak about improving the situation of roads, the authorities convened a conference of chief engineers of provinces at Nagpur in 1943. The end result of the convention is famous as the Nagpur plan.
A twenty yr improvement programme for the length (1943-1963) was finalized. It changed into the first try to put together a co-ordinated road improvement programme in a deliberate manner.
The roads had been divided into 4 lessons:
National highways which might skip thru states, and locations having country wide importance for strategic, administrative and other functions.
State highways which would be the other main roads of a kingdom.
District roads which would take traffic from the primary roads to the interior of the district . According to the significance, a few are taken into consideration as essential district roads and the ultimate as other district roads.
Village roads which might hyperlink the villages to the street device.
The committee planned to assemble 2 lakh kms of avenue throughout the country within 20 years.
They recommended the construction of megastar and grid pattern of roads for the duration of the united states.
One of the goal changed into that the road duration should be extended in order to give a street density of 16kms according to one hundred sq.Km.
Question eleven. Explain Bombay Road Congress?
The duration of roads envisaged under the Nagpur plan become done with the aid of the give up of it, however the road machine was poor in many respects. The modified economic, industrial and agricultural situations inside the u . S . Warranted a overview of the Nagpur plan. Accordingly a 20-yr plan become drafted by way of the Roads wing of Government of India, that's popularly referred to as the Bombay plan. The highlights of the plan had been:
It turned into the second one 20 12 months street plan (1961-1981)
The general road period focused to assemble changed into approximately 10 lakhs.
Rural roads have been given particular attention. Scientific techniques of creation was proposed for the rural roads. The essential technical recommendation to the Panchayaths should take delivery of by using State PWD's.
They counseled that the length of the road must be multiplied in an effort to supply a road density of 32kms/a hundred sq.Km
The creation of 1600 km of expressways become also then covered in the plan.
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Question 12. Explain Lucknow Road Congress ?
Lucknow street congress 1984 : This plan has been organized preserving in view the growth sample envisaged in diverse fields by means of the flip of the century. Some of the salient functions of this plan are as given under:
This was the 1/3 20 year avenue plan (1981-2001). It is likewise called Lucknow street plan.
It aimed at building a avenue period of 12 lakh kilometres by way of the 12 months 1981 ensuing in a avenue density of 82kms/100 squarekm
The plan has set the goal duration of NH to be completed through the cease of seventh, 8th and 9th 5 12 months plan durations.
It goals at improving the transportation centers in villages, towns and so forth. Such that no a part of country is farther than 50 km from NH.
One of the goals contained in the plan become that expressways need to be constructed on important traffic corridors to provide rapid tour.
Energy conservation, environmental pleasant of roads and avenue protection measures had been additionally given due importance on this plan.
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Question thirteen. What Is The Sequence Of Four Stages Of Survey In A Highway Alignment?
Question 14. What Is The Effect Of Grade On Safe Overtaking Sight Distance?
To boom it on each descending and ascending grades.