Question 1. What Is The Value Time Stamp Format In Log Target For?
Timestamp Format: syslog.
Question 2. What Is The Default Log Size In The Log Target? What Happens When That Log Size Is Reached?
Log size: 500 kilobytes, When the log file reached the restriction, the device will uploaded it to the FTP server and if it's miles successfully uploaded, the equipment will delete the log inside the system to unfastened space.
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Question 3. Why Do We Need Log Target When There Is Already A Default Logging Mechanism Available In Datapower?
we want logtarget to capture messages which can be published through the diverse items and offerings that are walking at the equipment. In order to get a selected event or/and object log information, we utilize logtargets.
Question 4. What Are The Different Modes Of Archival? Explain Each Mode In Two Lines Each?
Rotate, rotate the log report when the maximum size is reached. The appliance creates a duplicate of the file and starts offevolved a brand new report. The appliance retains the archived copies up to the specified range of rotations. After reaching the maximum variety of rotations and the log file reaches its most length, the appliance deletes the oldest record and copies the current record.
Upload, add the log document when the most length is reached. The equipment uploads the record the use of the required add method.
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Question 5. What Is The Difference Between Object Type And Object Name And What Happens When I Keep The Add Referenced Object Option To ‘off’?
Object Type, specify the form of object. This clear out restricts log messages to most effective the ones messages generated by way of the selected object.
Whereas, Object name specify the name of an present item of the selected kind.
When the add referenced object alternative is turned ‘off’, the equipment generates no additional object filters anymore and consists of activities for handiest the specified item.
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Question 6. In The Data Power File System, The Logs Are Stored Default In Log Temp? True/fake, Give Appropriate File Directory If The Above Statement Is False.
True: logtemp, default area of log documents, which includes the machine-wide default log.
Question 7. How To I Collect A Single Log Statement As Alert As A Mail When The Object On Which Log Target Is Enables Goes Down Or Comes Up?
It is performed with the aid of putting in place Event triggers. Event triggers carry out moves simplest when brought on by means of a precise message ID or occasion code in this case the gadget is going up/down. With this filter out, it's miles feasible to create a log target that collects only the outcomes of the desired cause movement. For instance, to trigger the technology of an blunders document while a sure event happens use the keep error-file command and transfer to SMTP target layout to ship as an email alert.
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Question eight. What Is The Difference Between Object Filter And Event Filter?
Object filters permit handiest the ones log messages for specific gadgets to be written to the precise log target. Object filters are based totally on object instructions. With this filter, you may create a log goal that collects only log messages generated through specific instances of the desired item training.
Event Filter allow only the ones log messages that incorporate the configured event codes to be written to this log target. With this clear out, it's far feasible to create a log target that collects handiest log messages for a selected set of occasion codes.
Question nine. What Is The Log Target Type For Sending The Logs To Email, What Is The Field Name That Has To Be Given A Value For Subject Representation Of An Email?
SMTP, forwards log entries as email to the configured far flung SNMP servers and electronic mail addresses. Before sending, the contents of the log can be encrypted or signed. The processing price may be restricted.
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Question 10. What Is Cryptography? Why Do We Need It?
Cryptography is to defend non-public conversation in the public global. For example, two entities trying to communicate – Ajitab and Mulu – are shouting their messages in a room full of humans. Everyone can pay attention what they're announcing. The aim of cryptography is to defend this communique in order that handiest Ajitab and Mulu can recognize the content material of the messages.
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Question eleven. What Is A Trust Store?
A trust save includes certificates from other parties that we assume to talk with, or from Certificate Authorities that we consider to perceive different events. For instance, google (chrome) includes certificate of many businesses or websites. Whenever we browse that site the browser robotically take a look at the website for its certificate shape the store and examine it. If it's miles real, google will add the ‘s’ on ‘HTTP’. That way we know that internet site is secured and believe worth.
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Question 12. How Do You Gauge The Strength Of The Key, What Is The Parameter Used?
The set of rules have to be recognized to the general public; but the key needs to be confidential
Performance/ Response time for Encryption or Decryption (relies upon on the system we use)
Mathematical evidence for standardization of security furnished via that algorithm
Who provided the certificate for the algorithm and the date of expiration date?
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Question thirteen. Why Do We Need A Digital Signature?
Digital signatures act as a verifiable seal or signature to affirm the authenticity of the sender and the integrity of the message. Users who desire to verify their identification whilst sending a covered message can encrypt the facts with their private key. The recipient can then decrypt the message with the sender’s public key in order to affirm the sender’s identification and the integrity of the message.
Question 14. Who Issues A Certificate, Explain In Detail?
Certificate government act as depended on 1/3 events that affirm the identity of the sender of an encrypted message and difficulty virtual certificate as proof of authorization. These virtual certificate comprise the general public key of the sender, which is then surpassed alongside to the meant recipient. The Certificate authorities do significant background tests before giving an enterprise or a given character a certificate.
Question 15. Give Three Popular Algorithms Used For Encryption?
Triple DES-makes use of three man or woman keys with fifty six bits each. The total key duration adds up to 168 bits, but specialists might argue that 112-bits in key electricity is greater love it.
RSA- is a public-key encryption set of rules and the usual for encrypting statistics despatched over the internet.
AES-it's far extraordinarily efficient in 128-bit form, AES also makes use of keys of 192 and 256 bits for heavy obligation encryption purposes.
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Question sixteen. Why Do We Need It?
We want cryptography to proportion facts confidentially that's ensuring the secrecy of communique
Authentication – Ajitab can sign his message and Mulu can affirm that he despatched it based totally on his signature
Integrity checking -Mulu can generate a checksum of the message. Ajitab can either extract it from the message or recalculate it and affirm that the message has no longer been modified.
Non-repudiation – if Ajitab symptoms the message he cannot deny later that he sent it, because no one else may want to generate that identical signature/non-public key.
Question 17. What Are The Weakness Of Symmetric Key Cryptography And What Is The Strength Of The Asymmetric Key Cryptography?
Symmetric key cryptography-
The largest obstacle in efficiently deploying a symmetric-key algorithm is the need for a right change of personal keys. This transaction ought to be finished in a cozy manner. If face to-face meeting, which proves pretty impractical in many situations while taking distance and time into account, cannot be feasible to exchange private keys. If one assumes that security is a hazard to begin with because of the desire for a secret alternate of statistics within the first region, the alternate of keys turns into similarly complicated.
Another hassle issues the compromise of a private key. In symmetric key cryptography, each participant has an equal private key. As the variety of contributors in a transaction increases, both the risk of compromise and the effects of one of these compromise boom dramatically. Each extra user adds some other capability factor of weak spot that an attacker ought to take advantage of. If such an attacker succeeds in gaining manage of just one of the non-public keys on this world, each person, whether or not there are loads of customers or just a few, is completely compromised.
Both Symmetric and Asymmetric-key cryptography also has vulnerabilities to attacks which includes the man inside the center attack. In this case, a malicious 0.33 party intercepts a public key on its way to one of the parties worried. The 0.33 party can then alternatively bypass along his or her personal public key with a message claiming to be from the unique sender. An attacker can use this manner at every step of an alternate so one can efficiently impersonate each member of the conversation with none other parties having know-how of this deception.
Asymmetric cryptography –More secure
Asymmetric keys have to be often longer than keys in symmetric-cryptography so that you can boast security. While generating longer keys in different algorithms will generally save you a brute pressure attack from succeeding in any significant period of time, these computations grow to be greater computationally in depth. These longer keys can still range in effectiveness relying at the computing electricity to be had to an attacker.
IBM WebSphere Administration Interview Questions
Question 18. What Are The Different Types Data Power Appliances?
Different sorts Data strength appliances :-
XML Accelerator XA35:
Accelerates XML processing and transformation.
Increases throughput and decreases latency.
Lowers improvement charges.
XML Security Gateway XS40:
Help secure SOA with XML chance protection andaccess manipulate
Combines Web offerings protection, routing and management features Drop-in, centralized policy enforcement.
Easily integrates with present infrastructure and tactics.
Integration Appliance XI50:-
Transforms messages (Binary to XML, Binary toBinary, XML to Binary)
Bridges more than one protocols (e.G. MQ, HTTP,JMS)
Routes messages based on content material and policy.
Integrates message-level safety and coverage Functions.
IBM Informix Interview Questions
Question 19. What Is Ssl?While It Encrypt & Decrypt The Data?
SSL are digital signed certificates. Consumer for meesage/communication integrity and confidentiality. Generally encrypt at Sender aspect and decrypt at receiver facet.
Question 20. Explain Datapower File Structure?
File device structure in DataPower is one of the fundamental thing that we need to look out for at the same time as working on day to day sports. Below image suggests the directory shape in DataPower.
Following are info of all of the Folders gift and their description.
Audit: This listing incorporates the audit logs. Each appliance consists of only one audit: directory. This directory can not be the destination of a copy.This directory is to be had from the CLI in most effective the default area.
Cert: This encrypted directory includes non-public key and certificate documents that offerings use in the area. You can add, delete, and list files in this listing however you can't view or adjust these documents. Each utility area carries one cert: listing. This directory isn't shared throughout domains.
Chkpoints: This listing carries the configuration checkpoint documents for the equipment. Each software area consists of one chkpoints: listing. This directory is not shared across domain names. During an improve, the operation deletes the contents of this listing.
Config: This listing includes the configuration documents for the equipment. Each software area consists of one config: directory. This listing isn't shared throughout domain names.
Dpcert: This encrypted listing contains documents that the appliance itself uses. This listing is to be had from the CLI in most effective the default domain.
Export: This listing contains the export programs. Each application domain carries one export: listing. This listing isn't always shared across domains.
Photo: This directory carries the firmware photos (primary and secondary) for the appliance. This directory is in which firmware images are stored usually during an add or fetch operation. Each appliance incorporates handiest one image: directory. This directory is available in best the default domain. During an upgrade, the operation deletes the contents of this listing.
Internalconfig: This hidden directory includes configuration-like artifacts for the equipment. This listing is in which predefined deployment artifacts like pattern exemplars are saved. You cannot get right of entry to this directory with any interface.
Isamcert: This directory incorporates shared certificates and key documents. When a shared file is modified, all opposite proxies need to be restarted.
Isamconfig: This directory contains the subsequent documents.
The Access Manager Reverse Proxy configuration documents. There is one configuration report according to reverse proxy. The documents are named inside the isamconfig:///webseald-call.Conf layout.
The Access Manager Reverse Proxy routing documents. There is one routing file according to reverse proxy. The documents are named inside the isamconfig:///routing-name layout.
Isamwebroot: This directory includes documents for every Access Manager Reverse Proxy. When a document on this listing is changed, most effective the reverse proxy this is modified should be restarted.
Neighborhood: This listing carries miscellaneous files which can be utilized by the services inside the domain, inclusive of XSL, XSD, and WSDL files. Each software area includes one neighborhood: listing. This directory can be made visible to other domains. When considered from different domain names, the directory name changes from nearby: to the call of the application area.
Logstore: This directory incorporates log files that are stored for destiny reference. Typically, the logging goals use the logtemp: listing for active logs. You can pass log documents to the logstore: listing. Each utility area incorporates one logstore: directory. This listing isn't always shared throughout domains.
Logtemp: This directory is the default area of log documents, including the equipment-huge default log. This directory can preserve thirteen MB. This listing can not be the vacation spot of a copy. Each software domain incorporates one logtemp: listing. This listing is not shared across domain names.
Policyframework: This listing includes unattached policies that are submitted to the equipment thru the REST management interface. Do not adjust files on this listing. To adjust an unattached coverage, DELETE and POST the policy via the REST control interface. This procedure guarantees that the coverage is recompiled. This listing isn't always shared throughout domains.
Pubcert: This encrypted directory incorporates the safety certificate which are used usually by means of net browsers. These certificate are used to establish protection credentials. Each appliance contains most effective one pubcert: listing. This listing isn't always shared across domains. However, you should be in default area to upload or fetch documents.
Sharedcert: This encrypted directory includes protection certificate which can be shared. Each appliance carries only one sharedcert: listing. This directory isn't shared across domain names. However, you need to be in default domain to upload or fetch documents.
Save: This listing incorporates example stylesheets, default stylesheets, and schemas that the appliance itself makes use of. Do now not regulate documents on this directory. Each equipment includes simplest one shop: directory. Although this listing is visible to all domain names, you can trade the contents of this listing from simplest the default area.
Tasktemplates: This directory carries the XSL files that outline the show of specialized GUI monitors. Each equipment consists of only one tasktemplates: directory. This listing is to be had in simplest the default area.
Temporary: This listing is used as transient disk area by using processing rules. Each application area consists of one temporary: listing. This directory isn't shared across domain names. During an upgrade, the operation deletes the contents of this listing.
IBM AIX 7 Administration Interview Questions
Question 21. How Can I Verify That A Custom Injection Filter Is Working?
To affirm that your custom injection styles record is working efficiently, test the default log for any messages that document parsing failure. A parsing failure could occur for any of the subsequent reasons:
The report includes XML that isn't always nicely-shaped.
The report contains XML that does not agree to the XML schema.
The file turned into deleted after the configuration become saved.
The file does no longer exist or is inside the incorrect place.
Question 22. Why Does The Datapower Appliance Convert My Utf-eight Characters To Encoding?
A back give up server or the requesting consumer is probably anticipating a few special characters which includes the British Pound image and letters with umlauts, accents, or different special marks; but, these unique characters are not preserved once they bypass via the DataPower equipment.
Take the subsequent steps to solve the trouble:
Set consist of charset in reaction-kind to on:
For the Multi-Protocol Gateway carrier or the Web Service Proxy carrier:
Use the Objects navigator to open the provider configuration display screen.
Choose the Proxy Settings tab and set include charset in response-type to on.
For the XML Firewall service:
Use the Objects navigator to open the XML Firewall provider configuration screen.
Choose the HTTP Options tab and set HTTP charset in response-type to on.
Edit the XML Manager which you are the use of on your carrier in order that the XML Manager includes a minimal output escaping rule:
Add a brand new Compile Options Policy or pick an existing one by means of clicking ....
Add a Minimum Output Escaping Rule.
Add a matching rule so that all requests coming in on that URI (it is able to be * ) are minimally escaped.
Use a style sheet within the rework action for your processing rule. Include the subsequent line inside the fashion sheet to specify output encoding:
<xsl:output encoding="UTF-8" version="1.0" method="xml"/>
Make certain that you transform the incoming request along with your style sheet, even minimally; in any other case, the settings in step 2 are not used. If you do now not need to convert the request, insert the following line in among the xsl:template detail tags:
Optional: If your response still escapes the unique characters, clean the stylesheet cache. Clearing the style sheet cache guarantees that the DataPower equipment uses the modern-day settings.
Question 23. What Is An Injection Filter?
An injection clear out blocks requests which can be considered probably to carry out injection assaults. The filter out protects against injection assaults as follows:
Analyzes incoming requests and validates that the input facts is nicely-shaped
Ensures that the request isn't always trying to adjust SQL statements or XML records embedded inside the application
This safety is executed by means of applying some of everyday expressions towards one-of-a-kind elements of the HTTP request. Any suit shows that the request might be malicious and reasons the firewall to log, reject, or redirect the request.
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Question 24. What Is An Injection Attack?
SQL injection attacks are attempts by using malicious users to get admission to or modify database facts available best to the internet software. XPath injection assaults are tries to get right of entry to or adjust XML statistics.
Attackers alter person-submitted requests to do the following:
Gain greater understanding about the shape of the database or XML facts
Obtain sensitive facts including consumer names and passwords
Corrupt or delete statistics within the database.
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