Question 1. Difference Between C And C++?
a) C follows the procedural programming paradigm at the same time as C++ is a multi-paradigm language (procedural in addition to item orientated)
In case of C, significance is given to the stairs or method of this system while C++ makes a speciality of the facts as opposed to the system.
Also, it's miles simpler to put into effect/edit the code in case of C++ for the equal purpose.
B) In case of C, the statistics isn't secured while the facts is secured (hidden) in C++
This distinction is due to specific OOP capabilities like Data Hiding which aren't found in C.
C) C is a low-stage language even as C++ is a center-stage language
C is seemed as a low-stage language (difficult interpretation & much less consumer friendly) even as C++ has features of both low-degree (awareness on what's taking place in the machine hardware) & high-degree languages (awareness on the program itself) & as a result is appeared as a middle-degree language.
D) C makes use of the top-down technique while C++ makes use of the lowest-up technique
In case of C, the program is formulated grade by grade, each step is processed into element at the same time as in C++, the base elements are first formulated which then are connected collectively to give rise to larger systems.
E) C is characteristic-driven while C++ is item-driven
Functions are the constructing blocks of a C program whilst gadgets are building blocks of a C++ program.
F) C++ helps characteristic overloading even as C does no longer
Overloading means two capabilities having the same name inside the equal application. This can be performed best in C++ with the assist of Polymorphism (an OOP characteristic)
g) We can use features inside systems in C++ however no longer in C.
In case of C++, functions can be used inside a structure even as structures cannot comprise functions in C.
H) The NAMESPACE feature in C++ is absent in case of C
C++ makes use of NAMESPACE which keep away from name collisions. For instance, two college students enrolled inside the same college can't have the same roll variety even as students in one of a kind universities might have the equal roll quantity. The universities are two distinct namespace & hence contain the equal roll number (identifier) however the equal university (one namespace) cannot have students with the equal roll variety (identifier)
i)The popular input & output features fluctuate within the two languages
C uses scanf & printf at the same time as C++ makes use of cin>> & cout<< as their respective input & output functions
j) C++ allows the use of reference variables while C does not
Reference variables allow two variable names to point to the same memory location. We cannot use these variables in C programming.
K) C++ supports Exception Handling while C does not.
C does not support it "formally" but it can always be implemented by other methods. Though you don't have the framework to throw & catch exceptions as in C++.
Question 2. What Is Null Pointer?
When referring to computer memory, a null pointer is a command used to direct a software program or operating system to an empty location in the computer memory. Commonly, the null pointer is used to denote the end of a memory search or processing event. In computer programming, a null pointer is a pointer that does not point to any object or function.
A nil pointer is a false value. For example, 1 > 2 is a zero announcement.
In the programming language C, NULL is an to be had command that can be used, where nil is an to be had command used in the Pascal programming language.
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Question 3. What Are The 4 Basics Of Oop?
Abstraction, Inheritance, Encapsulation, and Polymorphism.
Question 4. What You Mean By Object Relational Dbms?
An item-relational database (ORD), or object-relational database control machine (ORDBMS), is a database control device (DBMS) much like a relational database, however with an object-orientated database model: gadgets, classes and inheritance are without delay supported in database schemas and inside the question language. In addition, simply as with proper relational structures, it supports extension of the facts model with custom facts-types and methods.
Question five. Structural Difference Between Bitmap And B-tree Index ?
It is made from branch nodes and leaf nodes. Branch nodes holds prefix key cost along with the hyperlink to the leaf node. The leaf node in flip incorporates the listed fee and rowed.
It certainly includes bits for every unmarried wonderful value. It uses a string of bits to speedy find rows in a desk. Used to index low cardinality columns.
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Question 6. What Is Database Schema?
The formal definition of database schema is a hard and fast of formulas (sentences) known as integrity constraints imposed on a database.
Question 7. What Are The Different Levels Of Database Schema?
Conceptual schema- a map of concepts and their relationships.
Logical schema- a map of entities and their attributes and relations
Physical schema- a selected implementation of a logical schema
Schema object- Oracle database object
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Question eight. What Is Difference Between Foreign Key And Reference Key ?
Reference Key is the primary key this is referenced inside the other table (connected via the opposite tables Foreign Key). Foreign Key is the way you link the second desk to the number one tables Primary Key (or Reference Key).
Question 9. Tell Me About Dsn?
A Data Source Name (DSN) is the logical name that is used by Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) to refer to the drive and other information that is required to get entry to facts. The call is used by Internet Information Services (IIS) for a connection to an ODBC facts supply, such as a Microsoft SQL Server database.
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Question 10. Difference Between Clustered Index And Non Clustered Index ?
Only one in keeping with table
Faster to study than non clustered as information is bodily saved in index order
Non Clustered Index
Can be used often in line with table
Quicker for insert and replace operations than a clustered index
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Question eleven. What Is Wpf And Wcf?
WPF/WCF application, need in .NET three.0 Framework.
This utility will cowl the following standards:
WCF(Windows Communication Foundation)
The new provider oriented attributes
The use of interfaces
The use of callbacks
Creating the proxy
WPF( Windows Presentation Foundation )
Multithreading a WPF application
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Question 12. What Is The Difference Between An Exe And A Dll?
The time period EXE is a shortened version of the word executable because it identifies the record as a software. On the opposite hand, DLL stands for Dynamic Link Library, which typically consists of functions and tactics that may be utilized by other packages.
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Question thirteen. Tell How To Check Whether A Linked List Is Circular.?
Create two recommendations, every set to the start of the list. Update every as follows:
pointer1 = pointer1->next;
pointer2 = pointer2->subsequent; if (pointer2) pointer2=pointer2->next;
if (pointer1 == pointer2)
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Question 14. How Can U Increase The Heap Size In The Memory?
If heap size set too low then you will get "out of reminiscence" mistakes. If you set it too high then your machine will hold or you may go through negative performance due to the fact parts of the jvm might be swapped inside and out of reminiscence. A rule of thumb is that you have to not set this parameter larger than about 80% of your loose bodily reminiscence. On Windows XP machines you may determine your unfastened physical reminiscence from the Performance tab of the Task Manager software.
Boosting the heap length parameter will allow you to examine in larger report-primarily based initiatives. It will even enhance the overall performance of the database lower back-stop considering the fact that more reminiscence is available for caching.In Java Set the maximum heap length, the use of the -Xmx command-line option, to a cost that lets in the software to run with 70% occupancy of the Java heap.The Java heap occupancy frequently varies over time as the load carried out to the software varies. For programs wherein occupancy varies, set the maximum Java heap length so that there may be 70% occupancy at the very best factor, and set the minimum heap length, using the -Xms command line alternative, in order that the Java heap is 40% occupied at its lowest reminiscence usage. If those values are set, the Java reminiscence control algortihms can modify the heap size over time in keeping with the application load, at the same time as maintaining utilization inside the finest location of between forty% and 70% occupancy.
Question 15. Why Is It Difficult To Store Linked List In An Array?
Both Arrays and Linked List can be used to shop linear information of similar sorts.
Linked listing offer dynamic size even as the dimensions of array is fixed, So we must know the higher limit on the wide variety of elements earlier.
Linked lists have following drawbacks:
Random get entry to isn't always allowed. We have to get right of entry to factors sequentially starting from the primary node. So we can't do binary search with related lists.
Extra reminiscence space for a pointer is needed with every detail of the list.
Arrays have better cache locality which can make a pretty big distinction in overall performance.
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Question 16. Different Types Of Keys In Sql?
The special types of Keys in sq. Server are:
A candidate key acts as a unique key. A precise key may be a Primary key. A candidate key can be a unmarried column or combination of columns. Multiple candidate keys are allowed in a table.
To uniquely perceive a row, Primary secret is used.
A table lets in best one Primary key
A Primary key can be a single column or aggregate of columns.
A foreign key in a desk is a key which refer another table?s number one key . A number one key may be referred by means of multiple foreign keys from other tables. It isn't required for a primary key to be the reference of any foreign keys. The thrilling element is that a foreign key can refer again to the identical table however to a different column. This sort of overseas secret is known as ?self-referencing overseas key?.
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Question 17. Explain About Joins, Views, Normalization, Triggers?
The JOIN key-word is used in an SQL declaration to query facts from two or extra tables, based on a relationship among certain columns in these tables.
Tables in a database are often related to each different with keys.
A view is a virtual table.A view includes rows and columns, just like a actual table. The fields in a view are fields from one or greater actual tables in the database.
You can add SQL features, WHERE, and JOIN statements to a view and present the information as if the statistics have been coming from one unmarried table.
Normalization is the method of efficaciously organizing statistics in a database. There are goals of the normalization process: disposing of redundant records (for example, storing the equal information in a couple of desk) and making sure statistics dependencies make experience (best storing associated data in a table). Both of these are worth goals as they lessen the amount of area a database consumes and ensure that facts is logically saved.
First Normal Form (1NF)
units the very basic guidelines for an prepared database:
Eliminate duplicative columns from the equal desk.
Create separate tables for each institution of related data and perceive every row with a unique column or set of columns (the number one key).
Second Normal Form (2NF)
in addition addresses the concept of removing duplicative records:
Meet all the necessities of the first ordinary shape.
Remove subsets of information that apply to a couple of rows of a desk and place them in separate tables.
Create relationships between those new tables and their predecessors through the usage of foreign keys.
Third Normal Form (3NF)
Meet all the necessities of the second one everyday form.
Remove columns that aren't established upon the primary key.
Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF or three.5NF)
It also called the "0.33 and half (three.5) regular form", provides one greater requirement:
Meet all of the necessities of the 0.33 everyday form.
Every determinant have to be a candidate key.
Fourth Normal Form (4NF)
Meet all the requirements of the 1/3 regular form.
A relation is in 4NF if it has no multi-valued dependencies.
Remember, those normalization tips are cumulative. For a database to be in 2NF, it have to first satisfy all of the criteria of a 1NF database.
In a DBMS, a trigger is a SQL process that initiates an motion (i.E., fires an motion) when an occasion (INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE) happens. Since triggers are occasion-driven specialised methods, they're saved in and controlled by using the DBMS. A trigger can't be referred to as or carried out; the DBMS robotically fires the trigger due to a records change to the related table. Triggers are used to hold the referential integrity of statistics by using changing the information in a systematic style. Each cause is attached to a single, exact table in the database.
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Question 18. What Is The Difference Between Socket And Session?
The Socket is a Combination of Ip deal with and Port Number (in pairs)
Session is a Logical Connectivity among the source and destination
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Question 19. What Is A Default Gateway?
In organizational structures a gateway is a node that routes the visitors from a computer to any other community phase. The default gateway typically connects the internal networks and the out of doors network (Internet). In the sort of state of affairs, the gateway node can also act as a proxy server and a firewall. The gateway is also related to both a router, which uses headers and forwarding tables to decide wherein packets are despatched, and a transfer, which affords the actual course for the packet inside and out of the gateway.
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Question 20. Given An Array Of 1s And 0s Arrange The 1s Together And 0s Together In A Single Scan Of The Array. Optimize The Boundary Conditions.?
if(A[x] && !A[y])//here we are checking that pointing out index is having 1 and remaining index having 0 than change values
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Question 21. Define Data Abstraction. What Is Its Importance?
Abstraction is the manner of spotting and specializing in essential characteristics of a scenario or item and leaving/filtering out the un-desired characteristics of that situation or item.
Abstraction is the basis for software program development. Its via abstraction we define the critical factors of a device. The system of identifying the abstractions for a given device is known as as Modeling (or object modeling).
Three stages of facts abstraction are:
Physical level : how the statistics is saved physically and where it's far stored in database.
Logical degree : what records or information is stored inside the database. Eg: Database administrator
View level : stop customers work on view degree. If any change is made it can be stored through other name.
Question 22. Write A Program To Swap Two Numbers Without Using A Temporary Variable.?
void swap(int &i, int &j)
Question 23. What Are The Memory Allocation In C/c++?
calloc() allocates a memory location, the length can be the made of its parameters(it has two parameters). Calloc fills the reminiscence with ZERO's and returns a pointer to first byte. If it fails to find sufficient area it returns a NULL pointer.
Malloc() allocates a memory place, period will be value entered as parameter.(it has one parameter). It does not initializes memory region
unfastened() used to loose the allotted reminiscence(allotted through calloc and malloc), in other phrases, this used release the allocated reminiscence new extensively utilized to allocate reminiscence on heap and initialize the memory using constructor delete also used release reminiscence allotted by using new operator
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Question 24. Write Output Of The Program?
Answer = 10 12 12
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Question 25. What Is Virtual Function And Pure Virtual Function?
Virtual characteristic:-To obtain polymorphism, characteristic in base class is declared as digital , By claim digital we make base magnificence pointer to execute function of any derived magnificence relies upon on content of pointer (any derived elegance address).
Pure Virtual Function :-This is characteristic used in base magnificence, and its defination needs to be provide in derived magnificence, In other pure virtual function has no longer defination in base
it described as :
virtual void amusing()=zero;
This method that this feature no longer going to do something, In case of pure digital funtion derived feature has to put in force pure digital characteristic or redeclare it as natural digital characteristic.