Question 1. Describe Briefly Any Three Types Of Transmission?
The numerous varieties of typically used transmissions are as follows:
Simplex Transmission: This form of facts transmission includes statistics to be moved most effective in a single course. In this no records may be despatched back using the identical channel. A properly example of this shape of transmission can be discovered in a keyboard.
Half Duplex Transmission: This form of transmission allows statistics to be transferred in each guidelines however no longer on the equal time. One stop transmits whilst the opposite gets.
Full Duplex Transmission: In this form of transmission statistics can be despatched and obtained at the same time. There aren't any distinctive modes such as transmit and acquire.
Question 2. Briefly Explain The 8279 Operation ?
The 8279 is essentially a programmable keyboard and a component for display interfacing.
The 8279 can experiment and additionally encode a sixty four key keyboard as well as a numerical show of sixteen digits.
The keyboard has a buffer based on FIFO to shop up to eight keys after which the processor ought to retrieve a character.
It contains 8 strains that can be used to connect to eight columns of a keyboard. There are two additional traces for STB keys.
Once a secret's pressed they may be routinely debounced and it can function the usage of modes -key lockout and n-key curler.
On simultaneous presses handiest the first key's detected. In case of n-key rollover mode all simultaneous presses are detected and stored in the inner buffer.
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Question three. Briefly Mention The Differences Between Vga And Cga Graphics.?
The traits of CGA are as follows:
The CGA or the Color/Graphics adapter become the first coloration portraits card for IBM laptop`s.
It incorporate 16KB of video memory and used an Rca jack to hook up with a Tv or monitor ( NTSC well matched).
It could also be connected to a RBGI interface CRT display (4-bit).
The characteristics of VGA pictures are as follows:
The VGA or the video photos array became a hardware brought with the IMB PS/2 computers.
It has been widely followed global over and now truely implies the analog laptop show wellknown.
Eventually after a whole lot adjustments by way of different producers the VGA become superseded by using SVGA.
Question four. Describe Briefly The External And Internal Bus Of The 8088 Processor?
Internal Data Bus: As its call indicates the inner information bus simplest works inside a CPU that is internally. It is able to speak with the inner cache reminiscences of the CPU. Since they are internally located they are particularly short and are actually affected by the relaxation of the laptop.
External Data bus: This form of bus is used to connect and interface the pc to its related peripheral devices. Since they're outside and do now not lie within the circuitry of the cpu they're fantastically slower.
The 8088 processor in itself contains a sixteen-bit inner information bus coupled with a 20-bit cope with sign in. This lets in the processor to deal with to a maximum of 1 MB.
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Question five. Explain Briefly The Role Of The 8284 Processor?
The 8284 is taken into consideration to be a supporting element for microprocessors. It is liable for the generation of clock alerts.
The clock generator forms an intrinsic part of a circuit as with out it every aspect in the system could ought to create a sign for it independently.
When F/C’ is at logic, the oscillator output is recommended thru to the divide-with the aid of-three counter.
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Question 6. How Can A Microprocessor Based Computer System Be Developed?
In growing a Microprocessor based computer system the subsequent steps are concerned:
The first step is to develop the CPU module.By doing so the basic device timing, sequential startup order is established.
After that reminiscence desires to be introduced: The number one reminiscence is important for the applications which might be stored on the laptop. There can be numerous varieties of recollections with exclusive hierarchies. The CPU loads and fetches training from the reminiscence.
The 1/3 step is including enter/output: There are basically hardware strategies for buying records into and out of a laptop.
The parallel interface is the maximum commonplace and herbal shape.
The serial interface is the second method.
Question 7. Explain In Pentium Processors How Memory Management Has Been Improved?
By including a paging unit and a brand new device inside the memory device the management of it has been advanced upon.
Paging Unit: The paging mechanism works on 4KB reminiscence pages or with a new extension available to the Pentium with 4MB reminiscence pages.
Memory-control mode: The gadget reminiscence-management mode (SMM) is on the equal tiers together with the blanketed mode, real mode, and digital mode. Still the reminiscence control mode function as a supervisor. High-level gadget functions such as strength control and safety are looked after through it.
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Question eight. What Do You Understand By Macro? Explain The Various Conditional Constructs Used While Programming A Macro?
Macro can be considered to be a sequence of instructions to which a call is assigned.
For brief sequence of commands that are of constant nature Macros are used.
They can execute quicker in comparison to subroutines.
The MACRO directives are used to tell the assembler the beginning of a macro.
In order to surround a macro the ENDM directive is used.
The popular format of the MACRO directive is: Macro Name MACRO ARG1, ARG2 , …..,ARG N.
To create macro sequences conditional assembly language statements are used. Theses statements manage the glide of the program and are variations of the IF-THEN, IF-THEN-ELSE, DO-WHILE, and REPEAT-UNTIL constructs utilized in excessive-stage language programming languages.
Question 9. Briefly Explain Cwd Instructions In 8086 Family?
CWD also referred to as the Convert signed Word to signed Double word coaching, it's far used to increase the sign bit of a word in AX register to all of the bits of the DX register. Generally used before a signed word in AX. Then it's miles divided with the aid of some other signed word the use of IDIV preparation. It does now not have an effect on any flag.
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Question 10. Briefly Explain Loop Instructions In 8086 Family:
LOOP: (Jump to designated label till CX = 0): As the call shows the loop instruction is used to repeat a chain of commands for a unique range of time. It does now not have an effect on any flag and the number of times the loop is to be repeated is saved inside the CX check in.
Question 11. Briefly Explain Imul Instructions In 8086 Family?
IMUL: This instruction is used for the multiplication of signed numbers.The result of imul between signed numbers is signed as well. The OF (Over float) and CF (Carry flag) flags get tormented by this education.
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Question 12. Briefly Explain Sar Instructions In 8086 Family?
SAR: Also called Shift each bit of operand proper, this practise shifts every bit of the operand in a check in or reminiscence area, right by using the variety of bits precise. The convey flag is laid low with this operation.
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Question thirteen. Explain Segments Their Pro`s And A Method For Their Implementation?
The division of address area into logical sections is known as segmentation and every such space is referred to as a phase.
In order to get admission to a specific memory region, a program ought to specify each the segment wide variety and the offset contained in that segment. Segment reminiscence addressing divides the memory into many segments.
One of the advantages of memory segmentation is that best sixteen bit registers are required to each store phase base cope with as well as offset address. Due to this the designing of the memory is easy.
By using segmentation there is the gain of relocability as well.
Question 14. Briefly Explain Dma And Its Various Addressing Modes?
The DMA or the direct memory access is a type of method in which the System bus manipulate is accessed and managed by means of an external tool in place of the CPU.
It is typically used for the excessive velocity switch of facts from mass garage devices.
The DMA features by using immediately transferring statistics to and from from the reminiscence to the devices.
The diverse modes of operation of the DMA are as follows: Demand mode, Single mode, Block mode and Cascade mode.
The function of the call for mode is that it may switch facts until the Dreq enter will become inactive.
Question 15. Briefly Explain The Functions Of Debugger, Assembler And The Linker?
Debugger: As its name indicates the debugger is used to check and debug programs. The debugger permits a user to test a software little by little, so that the trouble points or steps may be diagnosed and rectified. It permits the consumer to check out the registers and the reminiscence places after a program has finished.
Assembler: The assembler is used to convert assembly language written by way of a consumer or a program right into a machine recognizable format.
Linker: There are certain applications which might be massive in length and can not be executed at one go simultaneously. Such applications are divided into subprograms also known as modules. The linker is used to link such small applications to shape one massive program.
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Question sixteen. In Assembly Language, Write The Program To Search For The Largest Number Among N Numbers Which Are Stored In The Memory?
The application to stumble on the most important variety amongst n numbers stored in the memory are as follows:
Step 1>>MOV AX, 0000
Step 2>>MOV SI, 0200
Step three>>MOV CX, [SI]
Step 4>>BACK : INC SI
Step five>>INC SI
Step 6>>CMP AX, [SI]
Step 7>>JAE GO
Step 8>>MOV AX, [SI]
Step nine>>GO: LOOP BACK
Step 10>>MOV , AX
Step 11>>INT three
Question 17. Write A Program In Assembly Language To Find Out One`s And Two`s Complement For An 8 Bit Number?
The application to find the one`s complement of an 8 bit range is as follows:
The application to locate the 2`s complement is as follows:
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