Question 1. How Will You Convert A Date To Char In Oracle Give One Example
to_char() function is used to convert date to character we will specify format also wherein we want the output.
SELECT to_char( to_date('11-01-2012', 'DD-MM-YYYY') , 'YYYY-MM-DD') FROM dual;
SELECT to_char( to_date('eleven-01-2012, 'DD-MM-YYYY') , 'DD-MM-YYYY') FROM twin;
Question 2. How Will You Convert String To A Date In Oracle Database?
This Oracle Interview questions is some time asked as follow up of preceding Oracle Interview questions associated with changing date to char in Oracle. By the way to_ date characteristic is used to transform string to a date characteristic.
Syntax : to_date(string, format)
Example: to_date('2012/06/12', 'yyyy/mm/dd') It will go back June 12, 2012
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Question three. What Is Database Structure And Space Management?
An Oracle database is a collection of information this is dealt with as a unit. The motive of a database is to shop and retrieve related statistics. The database has logical systems and bodily systems. Because the bodily and logical systems are separate, the physical garage of statistics can be controlled with out affecting the access to logical garage structures.
Question 4. What Is Tablespaces In Logical Database Structure?
A database is divided into logical garage units called tablespaces, which institution related logical structures collectively. For instance, tablespaces usually organization all of an software’s items to simplify some administrative operations.
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Question five. What Is Oracle Data Blocks?
At the best level of granularity, Oracle database records is saved in facts blocks. One information block corresponds to a selected range of bytes of bodily database area on disk. A records block size is distinctive for each Oracle database whilst the database is created. A database uses and allocates loose database area in Oracle information blocks.
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Question 6. How Rollback Segments For A Database Are Created?
rollback segments for a database are created by means of the database administrator to temporarily store undo facts. The facts in a rollback phase is used:
•To generate study-consistent database information
•During database healing
•To rollback uncommitted transactions for users
Question 7. What Is Physical Database Structures Explain?
The following sections explain the physical database systems of an Oracle database, which include datafiles, redo log files, and manipulate files.
Every Oracle database has one or extra bodily datafiles. A database’s datafiles contain all the database information. The statistics of logical database structures consisting of tables and indexes is bodily stored inside the datafiles allotted for a database.
Redo Log Files
Every Oracle database has a hard and fast of two or extra redo log documents. The set of redo log files for a database is together known as the database’s redo log. A redo log is made up of redo entries (additionally known as redo information), each of which is a group of trade vectors describing a unmarried atomic exchange to the database.
Every Oracle database has a manage document. A control file incorporates entries that designate the bodily structure of the database.
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Question 8. Which Types Of Information Can Contains A Control Files?
Control files consists of the following styles of facts:
•Names and locations of datafiles and redo log documents
•Time stamp of database creation
Question nine. What Is Memory Structure And Processes?
Memory and manner structures used by an Oracle server to manage a database. Among other matters, the architectural functions mentioned on this phase offer an knowledge of the abilties of the Oracle server to help:
•Many users simultaneously getting access to a unmarried database
•The high overall performance required via concurrent multi-consumer, multi-software database systems
An Oracle server uses reminiscence structures and tactics to manipulate and get admission to the database. All memory structures exist inside the primary memory of the computer systems that represent the database system.
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Question 10. What Is System Global Area?
The System Global Area (SGA) is a shared memory region that consists of information and manipulate records for one Oracle example. An SGA and the Oracle history tactics constitute an Oracle instance.
Oracle allocates the machine international place whilst an instance starts and deallocates it whilst the instance shuts down. Each example has its own machine worldwide vicinity.
Users presently linked to an Oracle server share the facts within the system global area. For most desirable performance, the entire gadget international vicinity ought to be as large as possible (at the same time as still fitting in actual reminiscence) to store as tons information in reminiscence as viable and reduce disk I/O.
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Question eleven. What Is Process Architecture?
A method is a "thread of manipulate" or a mechanism in an operating device which could execute a series of steps. Some working structures use the phrases job or assignment. A technique generally has its very own private memory place wherein it runs.
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Question 12. What Is User (customer) Processes?
A consumer system is created and maintained to execute the software program code of an software application (consisting of a Pro*C/C++ application) or an Oracle device (which includes Oracle Enterprise Manager). The consumer process additionally manages the verbal exchange with the server tactics.
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Question 13. What Is Oracle Process Architecture?
Oracle procedures are known as by different strategies to perform capabilities on behalf of the invoking process.
Question 14. What Is Background Processes?
Oracle creates a set of historical past methods for each instance. They consolidate functions that might otherwise be handled by means of more than one Oracle packages jogging for every consumer manner. The background techniques asynchronously carry out I/O and display other Oracle processes to provide multiplied parallelism for higher performance and reliability.
Question 15. What Is The Program Interface?
The application interface is the mechanism via which a user method communicates with a server procedure. It serves as a method of trendy verbal exchange between any customer tool or application (consisting of Oracle Forms) and Oracle software. Its capabilities are to:
•Act as a communications mechanism, through formatting information requests, passing facts, and trapping and returning mistakes
•Perform conversions and translations of facts, specially between unique styles of computer systems or to outside person application datatypes
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Question 16. What Are The Major Aspects Of The Relational Model?
The relational version has 3 most important elements:
Structures: Structures are properly-described gadgets (together with tables, views, indexes, and so on) that store or get entry to the information of a database. Structures and the information contained inside them may be manipulated by using operations.
Operations: Operations are truely defined moves that allow users to manipulate the information and structures of a database. The operations on a database should adhere to a predefined set of integrity policies.
Integrity policies :Integrity rules are the laws that govern which operations are allowed on the statistics and structures of a database. Integrity guidelines guard the information and the systems of a database.
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Question 17. What Is Data Concurrency?
A primary situation of a multiuser database management device is how to manipulate concurrency, or the simultaneous access of the identical records by using many users. Without good enough concurrency controls, facts can be up to date or modified improperly, compromising facts integrity.
If many humans are accessing the same facts, one way of managing information concurrency is to make every user wait his or her flip. The aim of a database control system is to lessen that wait so it's far either nonexistent or negligible to every person. All facts manipulation language statements should continue with as little interference as possible and destructive interactions between concurrent transactions must be averted. Destructive interaction is any interplay that incorrectly updates facts or incorrectly alters underlying facts structures. Neither overall performance nor information integrity may be sacrificed.
Oracle resolves such troubles by using diverse sorts of locks and a multiversion consistency model. Both capabilities are discussed later on this section. These features are primarily based on the idea of a transaction. It is the application fashion designer’s responsibility to make certain that transactions fully exploit those concurrency and consistency functions.
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Question 18. What Is Read Consistency?
Read consistency, as supported by using Oracle, does the following:
•Guarantees that the set of records seen by using a declaration is consistent with appreciate to a single factor in time and does no longer trade at some stage in declaration execution (announcement-stage read consistency)
•Ensures that readers of database statistics do now not watch for writers or different readers of the equal statistics
•Ensures that writers of database statistics do not anticipate readers of the identical statistics Ensures that writers only wait for different writers in the event that they try and replace equal rows in concurrent transactions
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Question 19. Why Is Recovery Important?
In each database machine, the opportunity of a machine or hardware failure usually exists. Should a failure occur and have an effect on the database, the database need to be recovered. The desires after a failure are to make sure that the effects of all dedicated transactions are meditated in the recovered database and to return to everyday operation as quick as feasible even as insulating users from problems caused by the failure.
Question 20. What Is Recovery Manager?
Recovery Manager (RMAN) is an Oracle software that manages backup and recovery operations, growing backups of database documents (datafiles, control files, and archived redo log documents) and restoring or getting better a database from backups. Recovery Manager keeps a repository referred to as the recovery catalog, which incorporates facts about backup files and archived log documents. Recovery Manager makes use of the recovery catalog to automate each repair operations and media healing.
The recuperation catalog contains:
•Information approximately backups of datafiles and archive logs
•Information approximately datafile copies
•Information approximately archived redo logs and copies of them
•Information about the physical schema of the target database
•Named sequences of statements referred to as stored scripts
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