Question 1. What Is Organic Farming?
Organic farming is a device, which avoids or largely excludes the usage of artificial inputs (such as fertilizers, insecticides, hormones, feed additives and so forth) and to the most volume viable is predicated upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm natural waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection.
Question 2. Is There A Need To Practice The Organic Farming?
With the growth in population our compulsion could be now not handiest to stabilize agricultural manufacturing however also to growth it further in sustainable manner. Excessive use over years of agro-chemical compounds like insecticides and fertilizers may also have an effect on the soil fitness and result in declining of crop yields and first-rate of merchandise. Hence, a herbal stability desires to be maintained at all cost for lifestyles of life and assets. The obvious desire might be really appropriate use of agro-chemical compounds and an increasing number of use of obviously taking place cloth in farming structures.
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Question 3. What Are The Benefits Of Organic Farming?
It facilitates in keeping surroundings fitness with the aid of decreasing the extent of pollutants.
It reduces human and animal health risks by using lowering the extent of residues within the product.
It facilitates in keeping agricultural production at a higher stage and makes it sustainable.
It reduces the cost of agricultural production and also improves the soil fitness.
It ensures most fulfilling utilization of natural resources for short-term advantage and allows in holding them for future generation.
It not most effective saves power for both animal and machine, but additionally reduces danger of crop failure.
It improves the soil physical homes such as granulation, and appropriate tilth, right aeration, clean root penetration and improves water-conserving ability.
It improves the soil chemical properties such as supply and retention of soil vitamins, and promotes favorable chemical reactions.
Question 4. What Is Compost?
Compost is nicely decomposed organic wastes like plant residues, animal dung, and urine earth from cattle sheds, waste fodder etc.
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Question five. How Good Compost Is Prepared?
Compost making is the procedure of decomposing natural wastes in a pit. Site for compost making is chosen need to be at a excessive level and water have to not pond for the duration of monsoon season. Pit ought to be of 3’ depth and 6’ to eight’ width. Length can be of any handy size.
The method is as follows:
Make slurry of the cattle dung with water.
Prepare 6” layer of natural wastes – plant residues, sweepings from the cattle shed, waste fodder, dried flowers stalks and leaves and so forth. And sprinkle water to just moisten it. (Over watering have to be averted).
Cover with the layer with urine earth and cattle dung slurry.
Add five to ten kg of extremely good phosphate for every 10 lots of natural wastes.
Repeat the manner of putting such layers till the pit is full.
Close the pit with urine earth, waste fodder after which heap the soil till it receives convex form (about 1 to at least one.Five’ above the ground) so that the rainwater rolls away.
After six months compost is prepared to apply to the fields.
The pit may be stuffed up if sufficient natural wastes are to be had. Otherwise a brief partition may be made inside the pit with bamboos or stalks and the pit may be crammed up over the years filling every partitioned region as and whilst the cloth is available for composting.
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Question 6. Why Super Phosphate Is Added In The Compost?
Due to brief heating and drying all through the decomposition of organic wastes, nitrogen in the natural wastes may be misplaced due to volatilization. Addition of terrific phosphate decreases such nitrogen losses. It may even boom the phosphate content material of compost.
Question 7. What Is Cow Pat Pit And How Is It Prepared?
Cow pat pit is an organic education, which is ready with the aid of blending cow dung, egg shell powder, basalt rock and biodynamic arrangements in a preferred proportion in brick-covered pits.
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Question eight. Are There Any Leguminous Plants, Which Could Be Used As Green Manures?
Number of plants which include peas, gliricidia and dhaincha can be used for inexperienced manuring. These flowers ought to be ploughed within the field when they're gentle and earlier than they start flowering.
Question 9. Can Drip System Be Used To Supply Liquid Nutrients Such As Panchagavya As Liquid Fertilizer?
Yes, some of farmers have already been the usage of the technique of using organic liquid fertilizers thru drip gadget.
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Question 10. Can We Use Coconut Coir Waste Instead Of Cow Dung In Preparing Vermi Compost?
Coconut coir may be one at a time delivered but cow dung is important for selling populace and also to satisfy the vital microbial strength requirements of earthworms.
Question 11. Are There Any Bio Friendly Methods To Cure My Curry Leaf Tree That Has Wrinkled Leaves With White Patches?
The tree may be sprayed with a aggregate of neem oil, vermin wash and cow’s urine at weekly periods specifically all through summer time for powerful results.
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Question 12. Is There Any Method For Making Organic Hormones Apart From Vermiwash For Inducing Good Crop Growth?
Mix approximately 5ml of coconut milk and buttermilk each in a mud pot and bury the pot below the soil for a duration of 10 days for fermentation. After the stipulated time the fermented concoction must be distilled and diluted in water in the ratio of one:10 and sprayed over the vegetation.
Agricultural Interview Questions
Question 13. What Is Varahagunabajalam? What Is It Used For And Is There Any Place From Where I Can Get Training In Its Usage?
Varahagunabajalam is made from the flesh and bones of pigs. About 5kg of pigs flesh and bones, 1 kg of black gram and sesame every are fried in approximately 2 lts of gingerly oil. About 2 kg of jaggery is added to the aggregate and soaked in cow’s urine or water and buried below soil for about 30 days. It helps in better flower formation and culmination. The endorsed dosage is 100 ml diluted in 10 litres of water, which may be both sprayed at the leaves or mixed together with irrigated water.
Question 14. How Is Compost From Coconut-pith Prepared?
Pith plus is an effective fungal way of life that is delivered to the coir pith to compost it.
Question 15. Do Leguminous Plants Help In Cultivation Of Other Crops?
Leguminous vegetation in association with the bacteria in their root nodules, can fix atmospheric nitrogen inside the soil. The multiplied nitrogen within the soil will help within the boom of succeeding crops.
Plant Physiology Interview Questions
Question sixteen. When Compost Is Ready?
The compost is prepared while the fabric is moderately loose and crumbly and the color of the compost is darkish brown. It might be black, granular, light-weight and humus-rich. To facilitate setting apart the worms from the compost, forestall watering to 3 days earlier than emptying the beds. This will pressure about 80 per cent of the worms to the bottom of the mattress. The relaxation of the worms can be removed by means of hand, and are equipped to be transferred into the subsequent round of compost making. The vermicompost is then geared up for software. The smell is earth-like. Any horrific odour is a sign that fermentation has now not reached its very last purpose and that the bacterial tactics are nevertheless taking place.
Question 17. Are Organic Yields Lower?
Based on 154 growing seasons' really worth of records on diverse vegetation, natural plants yielded 95% of plants grown below conventional, high-enter conditions. Growers who undergo the 3-12 months transition duration from conventional to organic control generally experience an preliminary lower in yields, until soil microbes are re-mounted and nutrient biking is in place, at which point yields return to previous levels.
Food Production Interview Questions
Question 18. How Do Organic Farmers Fertilize Crops And Control Pests, Diseases, And Weeds?
Organic farmers construct wholesome soils by using nourishing the living issue of the soil, the microbial population that release, remodel, and switch vitamins. Soil organic matter contributes to correct soil structure and water-protecting capacity. Organic farmers feed soil biota and construct soil structure and water-holding ability. Organic farmers build soil organic depend with cover vegetation, compost, and biologically primarily based soil amendments. These produce wholesome vegetation which can be higher capable of face up to ailment and insect predation. Organic farmers' number one strategy in controlling pests and illnesses is prevention via exact plant nutrition and management. Organic farmers use cowl vegetation and complicated crop rotations to control the sphere ecology, successfully disrupting habitat for weeds, insects, and disease organisms.
Weeds are controlled via crop rotation, mechanical tillage, and hand-weeding, as well as thru cowl crops, mulches, flame weeding, and different control techniques. Organic farmers depend on a diverse populace of soil organisms, useful bugs, and birds to maintain pests in take a look at. When pest populations get out of stability, growers enforce a variety of strategies along with the usage of insect predators, mating disruption, traps and limitations. Under the National Organic Program Rule, growers are required to use sanitation and cultural practices first before they are able to motel to applying a cloth to govern a weed, pest or disorder trouble. Use of those substances in organic manufacturing is regulated, strictly monitored, and documented. As a closing inn, certain botanical or other non-synthetic pesticides may be implemented.
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Question 19. How Are Organic Livestock And Poultry Raised?
Organic meat, dairy merchandise, and eggs are made from animals which can be fed natural feed and allowed get entry to to the outside. They have to be kept in dwelling situations that accommodate the herbal behavior of the animals. Ruminants need to have access to pasture. Organic livestock and hen might not be give antibiotics, hormones, or medicines in the absence of illness; however, they may be vaccinated in opposition to ailment. Parasiticide use is precisely regulated. Livestock diseases and parasites are managed usually thru preventative measures which include rotational grazing, balanced weight loss program, sanitary housing, and strain reduction.
Question 20. Is Organic Food Safe?
Yes. Organic meals is as secure to consume as some other form of food. Just as with all form of produce, clients have to wash earlier than consuming to make certain maximum cleanliness. As mentioned above, natural produce contains notably decrease degrees of pesticide residues than traditional produce. It is a common misconception that natural meals could be at more risk of E. Coli infection because of uncooked manures utility even though traditional farmers usually follow lots of raw manure as properly and not using a regulation in any way. Organic standards set strict guidelines on manure use in organic farming: both it need to be first composted, or it must be implemented as a minimum 90 days earlier than harvest, which lets in enough time for microbial breakdown of pathogens.
Question 21. What Is Composting?
Composting is a herbal manner, and when performed under controlled situations, converts natural fabric (like meals scraps and garden waste) into a product referred to as compost. During composting, numerous microorganisms, along with bacteria and fungi, break down organic fabric.
Question 22. Why Should I Compost?
Although organic waste won't seem harmful - it virtually represents extra than 30% of all of the material sent to landfill websites. When organic cloth is held in a landfill, it produces harmful gases. In addition, as water runs thru this decomposing waste, toxic liquid runs out the lowest.
Question 23. What Are The Benefits Of Composting?
Composting can play an essential position in strong waste management programs and significantly reduce the amount of waste going to landfill. In addition, composting conserves assets, reduces pollutants, reduces landfill and waste disposal charges, and builds healthy soil.
Question 24. What Can And Cannot Be Composted?
What's in - end result and greens, baked items, rice and different grains, dried corn stalks, pasta, peanut shells, espresso grounds and filters, tea leaves and luggage, egg shells, paper towels, egg cartons, bathroom paper rolls, cereal packing containers, dry leaves, dried and untreated grass clippings, weeds, twigs, small branches, sawdust, plants (non-diseased), and grass clippings.
What's out - all meat and fish merchandise, bones, fats and oils, all dairy merchandise, weeds which have long gone to seed, diseased flora, canine and cat waste, and vegetation previously sprayed with non-degradable pesticides.
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Question 25. What Are Brown And Green Materials?
Your compost pile requires each carbon and nitrogen to work well. Brown materials supply carbon and they include things like dry leaves, woodchips, dry grass, and paper products. Green substances offer nitrogen and consist of such things as culmination and veggies, coffee grounds, tea bags, and fresh grass clippings.
Question 26. Where Should I Put My Backyard Composter?
The composter should be positioned in a partially sunny, nicely drained, and convenient area.
Question 27. How Do I Start Composting?
Step 1: Decide on a compost bin and location.
Step 2: Build your compost pile. Start by way of layering brown and inexperienced substances. Begin with a layer of browns, then upload a layer of greens, end by using protecting with a layer of browns ensuring that the substances are fairly frivolously balanced by way of weight, not quantity. As you upload to the pile in the course of the season, retain alternating layers of browns and greens, constantly finishing with a layer of browns on pinnacle.
Step three: Sprinkle with water (if vital).
Step 4: Add more than one shovels of soil, and mix everything collectively.
Step 5: As you upload new compost material, flip the compost via moving fabric from the outside to the centre, and from the bottom to the top and vice-versa.
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Question 28. How Long Does The Composting Process Take?
The composting system can take from two months to 2 years, depending at the form of composter, the components, and the quantity of effort you placed into turning the pile. Compost is ready to use while it looks dark and crumbly and none of the original components are visible. A simple way to test if compost is finished is to seal a small pattern in a plastic bag for twenty-four to 48 hours. If no sturdy odours are launched when you open the bag, the compost is finished.
Question 29. Can I Compost In The Winter?
Composting doesn’t must forestall when the climate receives cold, in truth, you can compost effectively all 12 months long. Although decomposition will slow down throughout the iciness months – the ones hard-operating microbes are dormant while the inner temperature is less than 10 °C – decomposition will speed up once more within the spring. Even if your compost pile freezes altogether, you could preserve including fabric at some stage in the winter as a way to wreck down when the temperature rises.
Question 30. What Should I Do If My Compost Starts To Smell?
If your compost pile emits robust odours, it could not be getting sufficient air and/or is getting an excessive amount of water. To repair stinky compost add some brown material, blend in a few healthful lawn soil, aerate the pile, then pinnacle it off with a layer of brown cloth.
Question 31. How Do I Keep Pests Out Of My Compost?
To assist preserve pests out of an open pile, flip meals scraps into the pile as you add them, overlaying them with yard trimmings. Make or purchase a bin this is pest resistant: one that has a lid & has air holes small sufficient to maintain out small pests.
Question 32. Should I Put My Compost In The Sun Or Shade?
It's best in the color due to the fact the compost is much less likely to dry out: dry compost does no longer decay.
Question 33. How Long Does It Take To Compost?
Depending on how carefully you manage your pile for the correct situations, composting takes from 1 month to 2 years. A pile grew to become each week or so and punctiliously managed for all of the proper situations may additionally compost in a month or two. A pile not turned or managed will take approximately six months to 2 years to absolutely compost.
It isn't crucial to compost quickly. It's clearly up to you in case you need compost for your lawn as quickly as possible or in case you'd as an alternative watch for nature to run its direction. Just be sure to compost responsibly and flip your pile if it starts offevolved to present off foul odors.
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Question 34. Do I Need To Shred Or Grind Organic Materials To Compost Them?
Shredding or grinding natural substances enables velocity composting via growing the surface area of the compostable, making them on hand to decomposers. But shredding isn't always critical, besides while adding woody substances including sticks in order to take years to decompose unless they're shredded.
Question 35. Should I Add Inoculants And Activators/accelerators?
Inoculants and activators are not recommended. Inoculants are microscopic decomposers, and they are naturally located within the source substances you add for your pile, including leaves and grass. They are abundant in soil, finished compost, and manures. Just 1 teaspoon of fertile soil with compost frequently added to it has a hundred million bacteria and 400-800 toes of fungal threads.
Accelerators are generally a brief restoration of nitrogen that won't remaining lengthy and are a ability source of water pollution as they may be easily washed out of your pile into surface and floor water. If you need to add high nitrogen "veggies" on your pile, natural resources like grass clippings, manure, meals scraps or maybe bone meal give a sluggish launch of nitrogen and are higher for composting.
Question 36. Should I Add Lime To My Pile?
Do no longer add lime to a pile due to the fact it could cause nitrogen to be released from the pile as ammonia gas. This gas smells terrible and leaves your compost with less nitrogen, an essential plant nutrient for your garden.
You do not need to fear about the pH of a compost pile. PH, being a dimension of alkalinity or acidity, will generally modify itself and, whilst compost is mature, the pH is normally around neutral.
If you need to regulate the pH of compost, try this after it has finished its composting. First check the pH of your finished compost and regulate it as wanted.
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Question 37. Is Compost Different From Soil?
Compost is made of natural count, microbes and vitamins that may be used to condition and fertilize flower beds and vegetable gardens.
Compost is a treasured soil booster. It has high organic count number content and enables return to the soil many houses that are misplaced through the years and with use.
Compost incorporates micronutrients that enhance plant boom. It acts as a "slow-launch" fertilizer. Compost additionally improves the water-conserving capacity of your soil. So no longer best does compost help you preserve water, it enables hold your water bill down all through the summer time months.
Question 38. How Do I Compost?
Composting requires five basic things:
Organic cloth is split in to "Greens" (nitrogen rich) and "Browns" (carbon rich). Green substances are generally wet like your fruit and veggie scraps, clean grass clippings or clean fallen leaves. Brown substances are dried like dry brown leaves or dry grass clippings.
Follow these primary steps for extra powerful composting:
Step 1: Choose an area with properly drainage and a few sun to installation or construct your very own composter. Depending to your life-style and wishes, you can select to use a shop-sold or domestic-made composter. View our Backyard Composter place for information approximately the one-of-a-kind styles of boxes to be had. Ideally, your compost location ought to be at the least one metre by one metre with the aid of one metre. You do need a reasonably big pile for the composting technique to start. If your pile is just too small, it'll now not compost well.
When you start, you may pick out to layer a few branches or twigs approximately one foot lengthy or larger on the bottom of your compost pile to permit for air drift and drainage. A skinny layer of soil can be brought first to provide the soil microbes in an effort to do the paintings of breaking down your natural cloth. There is not any want to use compost starter, which basically does the same aspect with the aid of adding soil microbes.
Then start to upload your materials as you have them. The smaller the portions you placed into your compost heap, the faster they may decompose. You will need to add one-part vegetables for every a part of browns to build a balanced compost heap. It is suggested by means of a few which you layer your greens and browns. However, so long as the ratio is one-component inexperienced substances to 1- component brown materials, it is not vital to layer the fabric as you may be turning the pile blending those two styles of materials in any case.
Fine materials along with grass clippings should be delivered in smaller amounts in order that they do now not compact. Compaction way that there won't be ok air deliver. You can also attempt "grass cycling." See our grass biking location for greater statistics.
Step three: Add water. Effective composting calls for moisture. Add water when you first start your compost pile and each time you switch your pile. The compost pile should be as moist as a wrung out sponge to be composting correctly.
Turn your pile with a compost aerating device, pitchfork or shovel every couple of weeks at some point of the developing season to provide an good enough air deliver.
If your compost pile has a bad odour, it's miles likely you need to show the pile greater frequently to flow into more air, lessen watering or reduce the amount of greens on your pile.
You will recognise that your compost pile is running whilst the fabric starts offevolved to warmth up. The pile can get so warm at its centre that you could not stand to place your hand there.
In the wintry weather, your compost pile may freeze solidly. Just hold including your green and brown cloth as standard. In the spring, whilst it thaws, the pile will pick out up the composting technique simply in which it left off the preceding wintry weather. Only surely big compost piles are insulated enough to hold composting year-round.
Step 5: Your composted material is ready to use while it has an "earthy" scent, is darkish in coloration, bloodless and most of the materials are unrecognizable. The composting manner can take from months to 2 years, depending on the materials used and the attempt concerned.
Question 39. What Are The Signs That I'm Not Composting Properly?
Composting isn't tough however on occasion the procedure requires a little extra interest. Here are a few clean answers to correct positive conditions that would occur.
The composting system takes too long – If the pile does not lower in length or generate warmness, composting may need a lift. If the pile is dry, add water and mix thoroughly. If the pile is wet and muddy, unfold it inside the solar and add dry cloth. As properly, the items inside the pile may be too massive. Chop them into smaller portions. Remember to store "vintage" compost to combine with incoming cloth.
The centre of the compost pile is damp, however the rest dry – The compost pile may be too small. Try to hold your composter as full as possible. Mix new with antique, dry with moist, breaking up mats and clumps.
The compost pile is damp and candy smelling however not heating – The pile can also want extra veggies (nitrogen). Add grass clippings, fruit or veggie scraps or a sprinkling of organic fertilizer from the lawn centre.
The compost pile smells like ammonia – The pile may have too many greens, upload more browns (carbon). This will possibly show up if you have brought too many clean grass clippings.
The compost pile smells like sulphur (rotten eggs) – The pile may be too moist and not be getting sufficient air. Loosen up the pile, break up clumps, unblock vents and perhaps add some timber chips to help the pile "breathe." Turning the pile continually enables aeration.
The compost pile is attracting pests – Compost in a box with a cowl to prevent animals from getting into the composting materials. A cord mesh around the base can help to save you pests from digging under the pile. Dig in or cowl meals waste without delay. If performed well, composting need to no longer entice pests.
Question forty. Why The Production Of Spirulina, Isn’t It Too Complicated?
Technically, production of spirulina, isn'tmuch less difficult than manufacturing of rice as an instance. The hassle isn't always genuinely complexity, however rather newness. Depending on the training level, a education among one week to at least one month is essential (much shorter than the years of schooling for classical agricultural techniques).
Food Production Interview Questions
Question forty one. Are The Ingredients Easy To Find Locally?
The way of life of spiraling requires a unmarried aspect which isn't a classical agricultural fertilizer: sodium bicarbonate. This product, however, may be very common because it's far used for animal nutrients and in other areas. In addition, it is possible to replace it via ashes of timber. Regarding to the alternative substances, they may be sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which can be not unusual in agriculture.
Question 42. What About The Acceptability Of Spiraling By The Populations, And More Specifically By Children?
In assessment to the same old apprehension, the experience is that spiraling (at the low doses encouraged) is accepted with none trouble by people who want it. In truth, the young youngsters love it normally so much that they “consume” all spiraling left around.
Question 43. Why Not Burn Leaves And Other Yard Wastes?
Burning leaves and other yard wastes pollutes the air and may lead to uncontrolled fires. Leaf smoke could make respiratory tough for those who suffer from asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or allergies. A wide variety of states presently ban leaf burning, and a few groups both ban leaf burning or limit whilst and wherein it is able to take area.
Question 44. Why Not Put Yard Wastes In Landfills?
Since these materials are fairly easy and biodegradable, disposal in landfills can be pointless and wastes space. In addition, as backyard wastes decompose in landfills, they generate methane gas and acidic leachate. Methane is a colorless, explosive greenhouse fuel this is released as micro organism decompose natural substances in landfills. If methane isn't controlled at a landfill, it can seep underground and into nearby homes, in which it has the potential to explode. Yard wastes also contribute acidity that can make other waste elements greater cellular and consequently more poisonous.
Question 45. How Does Compost Improve The Soil?
Compost does numerous matters to benefit the soil that artificial fertilizers can not do. First, it adds natural matter, which improves the manner water interacts with the soil. In sandy soils, compost acts as a sponge to assist preserve water inside the soil that might in any other case drain down underneath the attain of plant roots (on this manner, it protects vegetation against drought). In clay soils, compost facilitates to feature porosity (tiny holes and passageways) to the soil, making it drain more quickly so that it would not stay waterlogged and does not dry out right into a bricklike substance. Compost also inoculates the soil with enormous numbers of beneficial microbes (bacteria, fungi, and many others.) and the habitat that the microbes want to stay. These microbes are capable of extract vitamins from the mineral part of the soil and subsequently skip the vitamins on to plants.
Question 46. The Leaves Of My Papaya Trees Are Getting Crinkled And The Fruit Production Has Also Decreased. Can You Suggest Any Organic Remedy For Increasing Fruit Production?
You may follow neem cake and vermicompost once each six months around the roots of the tree and spray Dasagavya answer over the inflamed parts of the tree. Regular use of Dasagavya will boom fruit production and first-class and assist control infestations.
Question forty seven. What Is Green Manuring?
Green manuring is the practice of developing a quick period, succulent and leafy legume crop and ploughing the flora within the same field earlier than they form seeds.
Question forty eight. What Is Green Leaf Manuring?
Green leaf manuring refers to adding the lopping from legume vegetation or timber to a area and then incorporating them into the soil by ploughing.
Question 49. What Green Manure Crops Are Beneficial?
Sesbania, Crotalaria, ‘Pillipesara’, Cowpea and so forth are right for inexperienced manuring.
Question 50. What Are The Popular Green Leaf Manure Crops?
Glyricidia, Pongamia, Leucina are common inexperienced leaf manuring vegetation.
Question fifty one. How To Manufacture Ginger Garlic Extract?
About 1 gm of ginger and garlic every, 2gm of green chilli and five litres of cow’s urine and water are taken. The garlic, ginger and green chilli are ground into a paste and mixed with cow’s urine and water. After 10 days the combination is filtered and used. The prescribed quantity is ready 500 ml of this solution diluted in 10 litres of water which can be sprayed over the plants. The perfect time for spraying this answer is for the duration of 6 am to eight.30 am and among four pm and 6.30 pm. Depending upon the soil, crop and different climatic elements the awareness may be raised or diminished.
Question fifty two. What Is Vermicompost?
Vermicompost refers to natural manure produced through earthworms. It is a mixture of bug castings (faecal excretions), organic fabric which include humus, stay earthworms, their cocoons and other organisms. Vermicomposting is the precise cost powerful and efficient recycling technique for the disposal of non-toxic solid and liquid organic wastes.
Question 53. What Is Vermiculture?
Vermiculture may be defined as tradition of earthworms. Earthworms are divided into two organizations: humus formers and humus feeders. The first organization dwells at the surface and feed on almost 90% natural materials. They are generally darker in color, and also are referred to as epigeic or detritivorous earthworms. It is these worms which are commonly harnessed for Vermicomposting. The 2nd organizations, the humus feeders, are burrowing worms a number of which can be useful in both compost preparation as well as making the soil porous. Generally the burrowers help in blending and distributing humus through the soil.
It has been proved that earthworms can degrade natural wastes promptly and efficaciously. However, to growth the efficiency of Vermicomposting, care ought to be taken to see that worms thrive nicely on natural matter, breed faster adapting to moisture and climatic fluctuations. The most useful function of Vermicomposting is that it eliminates foul scent of decaying natural wastes, as it's miles a completely aerobic device. The concept of Vermiculture became widely known inside the 50s of this century when facilities were set up in industrialized countries of Western Europe for the mass breeding of earthworms. Subsequently, USA, England and France carried out several experiments related to Vermiculture technology for efficient disposal of natural wastes.
Question fifty four. How Does Vermiculture Work?
Earthworms feed on organic waste, eating to five times their body weight. They use a exceedingly small quantity in their intake for his or her growth and excrete the mucus coated undigested count as vermicasts. Vermicasts include natural count number that has undergone physical and chemical breakdown via the pastime of the muscular gizzard that grinds the fabric. The vitamins gift in the vermicasts are with ease soluble in water for uptake via flowers. Vermicasts is a rich source of macro and micronutrients, nutrients, enzymes, antibiotics, growth hormones and micro plant life.
Question fifty five. Can Compost Be Made Without Earthworms?
Yes! But vermicompost is considered superior to different styles of compost because of its first-class. Moreover earthworms ingest clutter, dung and different organic be counted and grind it into best debris, thereby growing the floor vicinity and promoting quicker decomposition. The fabric passes through the frame of the earthworm to supply vermicasts. Soils with vermicasts have roughly one hundred instances more bacteria than soil without worms. Moreover plant growth selling substances were suggested to be found in vermicasts.
Question fifty six. My Vermicompost Manufacturing Unit Is Plagued By A Number Of Red Ants. Are There Any Bio-friendly Measures To Tackle The Menace As I Do Not Want To Use Any Chemicals?
You may sprinkle red chilli powder on all of the aspects of your unit to hold the ants from stepping into your unit.
Question 57. The Earthworms In My Vermicompost Unit Die Frequently. What Is The Reason For The Mortality Of The Worms?
Excess moisture and absence of right aeration can cause mortality of the worms. Provide right drainage holes to drain the excess water. The water for this reason tired can be used as a vermin wash for flowers.
Question 58. My Vermicompost Manufacturing Unit Is Attacked By A Number Of Pests. How Can I Control Them?
You might also erect a fence across the vermicompost manufacturing unit and sprinkle or spray pest repellent across the base of the unit to prevent the pests from attacking it.
Question fifty nine. My Worms Haven't Eaten The Waste Even Though I Started My Worm Farm Weeks Ago.
When first beginning a brand new trojan horse farm the worms need time to get used to their new environment and usually start eating the authentic bedding cloth first but then soon circulate as much as the new meals supply. Add simply enough waste first until you can see worms moving around in it, then you may add extra from then onwards.
My worms are seeking to get away, what I am doing incorrect. Worms are very specific about what situations they live in and if they do not like them they'll try to depart enmasse. If that is occurring you need to cross back and take a look at on the things that may be forcing them to want to go away. These include what you are feeding them, is the bedding material too wet, the pH stage of the bedding cloth, and many others. These troubles are normally fixed speedy and easily and with out losing too many worms.
Question 60. Whilst I Am Away On Holidays Will My Worms Starve To Death?
No, they should be OK but try and avoid adding any clean food fabric and cowl the bedding surface with wet newspaper or Hessian (gunny luggage) as a way to maintain the bedding fabric from drying out. You might also depart dust pots containing water included with lids, half buried into the pits/tanks. Even if the encompassing cloth dries up, the earthworms may also move and stay beneath these wet pots. If you are making plans to move away for an extended time (month or more) you may need to get a pal or neighbor to take over looking after your worms for the time you are away.
Question sixty one. If I Cut A Worm In Half Will I Have Two Worms?
No, so be careful when you are turning your bedding over so as not to cut any worms in 1/2.
Question 62. How To Collect Native Earthworms?
Identify worm-inhabited soils marked with the aid of visible earthworm castings at the soil floor is. Dissolve about 500gm jaggery (local sugar) and 500gm sparkling livestock dung in 20 litres of water. Sprinkle on a place 1m x 1m. Cover with straw, leave livestock dung lumps and cowl with an vintage gunny bag. Keep watering for approximately 20 to 30 days. A mixture of epigeic and anemic native worms will combination right here that might be amassed and used.
Question sixty three. What Environmental Conditions Do The Worms Like?
Paradise for a compost malicious program would be an environment which become pH impartial, 25ºC air temperature, above 70% air humidity, and between 70 & ninety% soil moisture. The soil could comprise coarse substances to make sure the soil is aerated, in addition to pleasant food debris of pre-composted natural cloth.
Question 64. How Do Worms Reproduce?
Composting worms are hermaphrodites, with each mature trojan horse having a complete set of each male and woman sex organs, accomplishing sexual maturity after fifty five days. After mating, a cocoon develops which may additionally contain as few as 3 to as many as twenty wormlings, depending on the situations and meals supplied to the worms.
Question 65. What Food Do Worms Eat?
Worms pick food this is wet, excessive in vitamins and comparatively low in carbon. Ideal meals may also consist of rotting fruit or veggies, kitchen waste, some animal manures, garden waste and compost, and corrugated cardboard. Worms do now not like onion, garlic, shallots or materials with high ammonia or nitrogen stages, or massive portions of fats and oils.
Question sixty six. How Much Can A Worm Eat?
In principle, a trojan horse can devour about its very own body weight in meals in line with day, depending on the sort and first-class of bug meals and the conditions in which the worms are living. Worms rely upon billions of microorganisms together with bacteria, algae, fungi, and nematodes, to soften and ruin down natural fabric earlier than the trojan horse digests both the microorganisms and the natural fabric. It takes around 90 days for the organic fabric to be processed by way of the worms and be ready for harvesting.
Question sixty seven. What Is The Importance Of Vermiculture Products?
The merchandise of Vermiculture act as environmentally pleasant lengthy-time period soil conditioners containing nutrients conveniently available to vegetation, which substantially enhance soil performance and crop yields. Scientific studies conducted into the results of vermicasts has observed 30-50% will increase in nitrogen uptake, a hundred% increases in potassium and phosphate uptake, increases in root duration, root numbers, and shoot length, and forty-60% will increase in cucumber and tomato yields. There are also suggested increases in flavour and shelf-existence, though those findings aren't as effortlessly quantified.
Question 68. What Is Biofertilizer?
Biofertilizer are equipped to use live formulates of such useful microorganisms which on utility to seed, root or soil mobilize the availability of vitamins with the aid of their biological interest in particular, and assist build up the micro-flowers and in flip the soil health in fashionable.
Question sixty nine. What Is The Method Of Application Of Bio Fertilizer In Sugarcane?
(A) Types of bio fertilizer for sugarcane.
Acetobactor, Azotobactor, Azoospirillum & Phosphate Solublizing Bacteria (PSB)
(B) Rate of utility: 12-15 kg / ha
(C) Mode of utility:
Set Treatment: Suspended & blended very well five kg bio fertilizer for one acre in one hundred lit of water .Treat cane set via dipping in this suspension before planting.
Soil Treatment: Suspended 5 kg of bio fertilizer in step with acre in 10 liters of water & combined with thoroughly with 80-one hundred kg of FYM. The blended bio fertilizer in FYM is sprinkled over cane setts within the rows at the of planting .Immediately rows have to be protected.
Question 70. Why Should We Use Biofertilizer?
With the introduction of inexperienced revolution technologies the cutting-edge agriculture is getting increasingly more based upon the steady deliver of artificial inputs (mainly fertilizers), that are merchandise of fossil gasoline (coal petroleum). Adverse outcomes are being noticed because of the excessive and imbalanced use of those artificial inputs. This scenario has result in figuring out harmless inputs like biofertilizer. Use of such herbal merchandise like biofertilizer in crop cultivation will help in safeguarding the soil health and additionally the pleasant of crop merchandise.
Question 71. What Are The Benefits From Using Biofertilizer?
Increase crop yield by means of 20-30%.
Replace chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by means of 25%.
Stimulate plant increase.
Activate the soil biologically.
Restore herbal soil fertility.
Provide safety towards drought and some soil borne illnesses.
Question 72. What Are The Advantages Of Bio-fertilizers?
Supplement to fertilizers.
Eco-pleasant (Friendly with nature).
Reduces the costs toward fertilizers use, particularly regarding nitrogen and phosphorus.
Question seventy three. What Types Of Biofertilizer Are Available?
Rhizobium for legume crops.
Azotobacter/Azospirillum for non legume vegetation.
Acetobacter for sugarcane simplest.
Blue –Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla for low land paddy.
Phosphate for all crops to be applied with Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Azotobacter.
For enriched compost:
Cellulolytic fungal tradition.
Phosphate and Azotobacter way of life.
Question 74. What Biofertilizer Are Recommended For Crops?
Rhizobium + Phosphate at two hundred gm each in keeping with 10 kg of seed as seed remedy are encouraged for pulses such as pigeonpea, green gram, black gram, cowpea and so forth, groundnut and soybean.
Azotobacter + Phosphate at 2 hundred gm every consistent with 10 kg of seed as seed treatment are beneficial for wheat, sorghum, maize, cotton, mustard and many others.
For transplanted rice, the recommendation is to dip the roots of seedlings for eight to ten hours in a solution of Azospirillum + Phosphate at 5 kg each per ha.
Question seventy five. How Biofertilizer Are Applied To Crops?
Seed treatment: 200 g of nitrogenous biofertilizer and 200g of Phosphate are suspended in three hundred-400 ml of water and blended thoroughly. Ten kg seeds are dealt with with this paste and dried in colour. The handled seeds should be sown as soon as viable.
Seedling root dip: For rice crop, a mattress is made in the subject and filled with water. Recommended biofertilizer are jumbled in this water and the roots of seedlings are dipped for 8-10 hrs.
Soil remedy: four kg each of the advocated biofertilizer are jumbled in 200 kg of compost and kept in a single day. This aggregate is integrated inside the soil on the time of sowing or planting.
Question seventy six. How Could One Get Good Response To Biofertilizer Application?
Biofertilizer product need to include precise effective stress in appropriate populace and ought to be loose from contaminating microorganisms.
Select proper mixture of biofertilizer and use before expiry date.
Use recommended technique of software and follow at suitable time as in line with the statistics furnished on the label.
For seed remedy good enough adhesive have to be used for better outcomes.
For complex soils use corrective methods like lime or gypsum pelleting of seeds or correction of soil pH by using use of lime.
Ensure the supply of phosphorus and different vitamins.
Question 77. What Precautions One Should Take For Using Biofertilizer?
Biofertilizer packets want to be stored in cool and dry place far from direct daylight and heat.
Right combos of biofertilizer ought to be used.
As Rhizobium is crop particular, one ought to use for the specified crop most effective.
Other chemical compounds need to not be blended with the biofertilizer.
While shopping one need to make certain that every packet is provided with vital facts like call of the product, name of the crop for which intended, call and address of the producer, date of manufacture, date of expiry, batch variety and commands for use.
The packet has to be used earlier than its expiry, handiest for the specified crop and with the aid of the endorsed method of application.
Biofertilizer are stay product and require care within the storage.
Both nitrogen and phosphatic biofertilizer are to be used to get the fine consequences.
It is vital to apply biofertilizer in conjunction with chemical fertilizers and natural manures.
Biofertilizer aren't substitute of fertilizers however can complement plant nutrient requirements.
Question 78. Can One Mix Psuedomonas And Tricoderma Viride With Azozpirillum And Phosphobacteria For Applying In Paddy Fields?
Generally all of the useful microbial organisms are like minded to every other. They may be applied effectively in mixture or separately as the situation needs.
Question seventy nine. Who Can Use Biofertilizer?
Anybody who is concerned in farming can use those biofertilizer in crops which include legumes, coins crops, cereal plants, fodder plants, oil seed vegetation, horticultural crops, veggies, fruit trees, woodland bushes, medicinal, herbal and ornamental plant life.
Question eighty. Why Biofertilizer Have Not Caught On If These Are So Good And Something Very New?
In spite of precise merits viz low cost agri-enter, excessive efficiency and less bulk, the biofertilizer by and huge could not win self belief of farmers / farming community likely motives might be the subsequent:
Quality of products:
Manufacturing and quality control of biofertilizer includes sophisticated era. Hence certified and educated manpower is needed to be deployed for biofertilizer production unit.
As biofertilizer bring live cells microorganisms, a first-rate deal of care is needed to be taken whilst dealing with transportation and storage specifically throughout summer season due to exposure of the bio-products to higher temperatures.
Awareness and Education:
Most often that is the maximum unmarried contributing issue for the popularity of bio-fertilizers. Due to lack of ok cognizance and schooling many of the farming community, there are many misconceptions regarding the use, software and forms of bio-fertilizers. Very frequently bio-fertilizers are unsuitable for natural manure and different nutrient primarily based merchandise. Hence, it will become extraordinarily crucial for the farming network to be educated and privy to these bio-fertilizers.
Question 81. Can We Use Biofertilizer With Chemical Fertilizers?
There is a huge distinction within the software amount and the actual availability of chemical fertilizers to the plant life. Biofertilizer had been stated to decorate the provision of those inorganic inputs to the flowers. Thus Biofertilizer can be used together with chemical fertilizers however the care ought to be taken to avoid direct contact of chemical primarily based inputs with Biofertilizer that's likely to reduce the microbial population of Biofertilizer.
Question 82. What Are Mycorrhizae?
Mycorrhizae are mutualistic relationships between soil fungus and plant roots. Scientist tells us that the relationship has been around for 400 million years even though found in 1845 through a scientist in Germany.
Question eighty three. Where Can The Introduction Of Mycorrhizal Fungi With Roots Have The Greatest Effect?
In disturbed soils, the types found in landscape initiatives, recuperation, new grove/orchards, and mine reclamation sites.
Question 84. Are Mycorrhizae In The Plants That I Buy At The Nursery?
Probably now not. Even if there has been a mycorrhizal fungi present in nursery stock the species that might thrive in a nursery placing could likely offer little advantage in a real world panorama, recovery, or forestry planting.
Question eighty five. What About Field Grown Plant Materials - Would They Have Beneficial Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated With The Roots?
Again, practices typically are geared to excessive manufacturing to turn inventories. Under surprisingly managed operations any mycorrhizal fungi gift might be poorly tailored to actual global conditions observed at out planting sites.
Question 86. Are Multi-species Mycorrhizal Inoculants Really Necessary?
Multiple species are very crucial because they boom the percentages drastically that one of the decided on species will prosper with the roots and multiply quickly.
Question 87. Since Mycorrhizal Fungi May Be Present In The Soil Anyway Why Should I Inoculate My Transplants?
Although mycorrhizal fungi can be gift the sorts (species) might not be the best for the plant species that is being planted. The creation of numerous species at the time of planting significantly complements the chance of a hit colonization of the roots to take gain of all of the blessings of mycorrhizal roots.
Question 88. If I Am Planting Like Type Plants In An Established Setting. Is The Use Of A Mycorrhizal Inoculants Still Necessary?
Use of inoculants right here is still suitable as research shows that the species of mycorrhizal fungi most effective with younger flowers can be special than the species only with mature flora of the identical plant species.
Question 89. What Plants Form Specialized Roots With Mycorrhizal Fungi?
Over ninety% of the world's plant species form mycorrhizae and require the affiliation for optimum overall performance in non-artificial situations.
Question 90. How Do Mycorrhizal Fungi Increase Nutrient Uptake?
These fungi increase the floor soaking up vicinity of roots 10 to 100x thereby significantly enhancing the capability of the flora to utilize the soil aid. Estimates of amounts of mycorrhizal filaments present in soil associated with plant life are superb. Several miles of fungal filaments can be present in much less than a thimbleful of soil! But mycorrhizal fungi increase nutrient uptake now not simplest by means of increase the surface soaking up region of roots, in addition they release effective chemical compounds into the soil that dissolve hard to seize vitamins along with phosphorous , iron and different "tightly sure" soil vitamins.
This extraction technique is particularly vital in plant nutrients and explains why non-mycorrhizal flowers require high tiers of fertility to maintain their health. Mycorrhizal fungi shape an complex web that captures and assimilates nutrients, accordingly conserving the nutrient capital in soils. In non mycorrhizal situations tons of this fertility is wasted or lost from the gadget.
Question ninety one. What Other Activities Do Mycorrhizal Fungi Do?
Mycorrhizal fungi are concerned with a huge type of different activities that benefit plant established order and growth. The identical extensive community of fungal filaments vital to nutrient uptake is likewise essential in water uptake and storage. In non-irrigated situations, mycorrhizal vegetation are underneath a ways less drought pressure as compared to non-mycorrhizal flora.
Mycorrhizal fungi also improve soil structure. Mycorrhizal filaments produce humic compounds and natural "glues" (extracellular polysaccharides) that bind soils into aggregates and improves soil porosity. Soil porosity and soil structure undoubtedly influence the increase of flora via promoting aeration, water motion into soil, root boom, and distribution. In sandy or compacted soils the capacity of mycorrhizal fungi to promote soil shape can be more crucial than the looking for of nutrients.
Question ninety two. Don't Soils Already Contain Mycorrhizal Fungi?
Undisturbed soils are full of useful soil organisms which include mycorrhizal fungi. Research suggests, however, many not unusual practices can degrade the mycorrhiza-forming potential of soil. Tillage, fertilization, elimination of topsoil, erosion, website online practise, road and home creation, fumigation, invasion of non-local plants, and leaving soils bare are some of the activities that can lessen or eliminate those useful soil fungi. Reintroducing mycorrhizal fungi in areas in which they had been depleted can dramatically enhance plant