Question 1. Explain What Is The Vacutainer Blood Collection System?
The Vacutainer machine contains a double pointed needle, a plastic holder and a chain of vacuum tubes with rubber stoppers of diverse hues. The coloration indicates the form of components. It is the fine way of collecting blood into the sample tube for evaluation inside the laboratory. It is straightforward and secure to apply as the blood pattern will at once move into the suitable take a look at tube rather than gathering blood first and transferring to the tube.
Question 2. How Vacutainer Needle Is Different From Normal Syringe Needle?
Vacutainer needle has a sharp point at both ends and commonly covered by means of a rubber sheath, with one quit being shorter than the alternative.
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Question three. What Are The Different Sizes Of Vacutainer Tubes Available?
Different Sizes of Vacutainer Tubes available are
Adults: five,7,10 and 15 mL
Pediatrics: 2, 3 and four mL.
Question 4. What Are The Types Of Anti-coagulants Used By Phlebotomy?
While, a few additionally use Heparin as an anti-coagulant.
Question 5. Explain What Is Thrombin Time?
Thrombin time is a screening of coagulation time, in which the time is cited to shape fibrin from fibrinogen in plasma. Normal, thrombin time is less than 20 seconds.
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Question 6. Explain What Is The Basic Technique To Collect Blood?
To acquire blood sample the simple method encompass:
Tie the belt (tourniquet) across the top arm and about 2-3 inches above the venipuncture website
Make positive that your belt does now not lose the grip from hand
It will exert pressure on the vein, and your vein will emerge out truely.
Palpate the vein and locate the quality website for blood series
Always wear gloves even as appearing these activities
Apply disinfectant to sterile the website of collection
Now insert syringe with the perfect angle, and draw the blood out and gather it in a sample tube
Once you acquire the blood, in no way forget to loosen the belt from affected person arm, otherwise it will spill blood all over.
Question 7. Give All Information That Should Be Mentioned On The Label Of The Sample Tube?
Sample tube should have all of the facts like
Patient’s Information’s ( first, middle and surname)
Patient’s ID range (Note: The above-given statistics have to match the identical at the requisition shape)
On the label of every tube date, time and initials of the phlebotomist should be cited at the tube.
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Question eight. Explain What One Should Do In Case Of Incomplete Collection Or No Blood Is Obtained?
If you fail to gather blood after puncturing, then in such scenario, you have to do following matters:
Change the position of the needle and pass it ahead
Or flow it backward, if it has penetrated too a long way
Set the needle at correct perspective, the bevel may be in opposition to the vein wall
Loosen the belt, it is able to be suppressing the blood drift
Use any other tube
Re-anchor the vein, vein now and again slip far from the point of the needle
Even trying all this technique does no longer help then strive some other puncture at any other web site.
Question nine. Explain How You Collect Blood Sample In Infant?
Usually to accumulate blood sample from little one, blood should be gathered from the foot, from the heel place.
Pre-warm the little one’s heel, no longer an excessive amount of that it hurts the little one ( 35-40 diploma C) for three-five mins, it will increase the blood waft and allows to hit upon blood capillaries without problems
Puncture the website online with a sterile lancet
Never use the important portion of the foot or too wide of the heel
Puncture across the heel print strains
With a smooth and dry cotton piece wipe away the first drop of blood, and gather the sample from the second drop of blood
Again observe some sterile solution to the puncture web site to forestall bleeding.
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Question 10. Explain What Is Whole Blood Sample?
A Whole Blood sample is referred to a blood this is drawn and mixed at once with an anti-coagulant to hold the traits of the blood cells and prevent clotting, allowing complete blood evaluation to be performed. In quick, the blood that isn't always allowed to clot after gathering from the patient is referred as entire blood pattern.
Question 11. What Are Different Color Tubes Used In Phlebotomy And What Does It Indicates?
The sample tube or blood collection tube has different colour top on it which indicates what test need to be performed on it.
Red Top: Immunology and Serology testing
Golden Top: Immunology and Serology trying out, however use one-of-a-kind chemical compounds to carry out the check
Light green Top: For Chemical testing
Red grey Top: For Chemical testing however use one-of-a-kind chemical then Light green pinnacle
Purple Top: Hematology checking out
Light blue Top: Coagulation tests
Dark inexperienced Top: For complete blood trying out using heparin
Dark blue Top: For whole blood trying out the use of EDTA
Light Gray Top: Blood sugar checking out
Yellow Top: DNA checking out, paternity testing and HLA tissue testing
Yellow black Top: Microbiological checking out ( Aerobes, anaerobes and fungi)
Black Top: For testing like Westergren Sedimentation Rate
Orange Top: STAT serum chemistries
Brown Top: Serum lead dedication.
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Question 12. What Tests Are Commonly Performed For Checking Kidney Functions?
For checking kidney capabilities the checks completed are
Creatinine test: High degree of creatinine in urine shows kidney won't be running properly
Urea: High degree of urea in urine suggests kidney won't be operating
eGFR (Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate): Normal fee of eGFR is ninety-one hundred twenty ml/min, whatever beneath 90 ml/min indicates there are a few kidney troubles
Dissolved Salts: Sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate are electrolyte, any alteration inside the degree of this electrolyte can be due to the kidney dysfunction.
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Question 13. Explain What Is Hiv Test Window Period?
HIV test window length is the time c program languageperiod between the unique infection with HIV and the arrival of detectable antibodies to the virus. Window duration is about 14-21 days, at the same time as in some case up to 12 weeks. In other words, a blood sample from HIV patient will display no sign of HIV contamination if he/she is in window duration, and his blood will show all HIV take a look at bad, until it surpasses the window period. It’s simplest after window period, you will capable of discover virus in blood sample and notice the contamination in the blood pattern of the HIV affected person.
Question 14. How Soon You Able To Detect Whether The Patient Is Infected By Hiv, If He Is In The “window Period”?
If HIV affected person is in Window Period there are distinctive degree of test, they may be
First era Test: They can detect antibodies after 40-60 days of infection
Second generation Test: They can hit upon antibodies after 21-24 days of contamination
Third technology Test: They can discover antibodies after 14-15 days of contamination.
Question 15. Explain What Are The Possible Risk That Is Associated With Arterial Sampling In Neonatal?
Collapse of veins if the tibial artery is broken at the same time as puncturing the medial issue of the heel
Osteomyelitis of the heel bone
Possibilities of nerve harm if the arms of neonates or babies are punctured
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